Psychology

Child Psychology The child\'s mind a very delicate and fragile piece of space just waiting to be fulfilled with knowledge. With every touch, taste, sight, and sound a small part of the brain is in growth. It is these early stimulations that are so crucial to a child\'s intelligence in the years to come. Babies are born with some knowledge that was genetically pasted down to them form there biological parents, but it is in the next couple of years that will be so crucial to his development. Scien
children and depression Summary: Symptoms of clinical child depression can vary depending on their age, personality, and home situation. Symptoms are often blamed on physical problems than on depression so the diagnosis is frequently made in the pediatrician’s office. If one suspects depression they should look for the following symptoms: seems distracted and has trouble concentrating much of the time, is emotionally unstable –easy to anger and cries easily, “looks” sad most of the time, has dif
Cognitive Dissonance Theory The theory of Cognitive Dissonance states that when individuals are presented with information that implies we act in a way that contradicts our moral standards, we experience discomfort (Aronson, Wilson, and Akert, 1998, P. 191). This is considered Cognitive Dissonance, A psychological term used to describe mental conflict that occurs when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information; arouses unease or tension; relieved by one of several defensive maneu
Competition INTRODUCTION: Competition occurs between any organisms living in a mutual habitat. Whether it is for food, water, shelter, or a mate, competition can be harmful or helpful to each organism. There are two basic types of competition; intraspecific and interspecific. These terms refer to competition within a specific species and the competition between different species, respectively. In this lab, we conducted 3 basic experiments. Our goal was to observe the effects of the competition i
Conformity Esssay According to Leon Mann, conformity means ‘yielding to group pressures’. Everyone is a member of one group or another and everyone expects members of these groups to behave in certain ways. If you are a member of an identifiable group you are expected to behave appropriately to it. If you don’t confirm and behave appropriately you are likely to be rejected by the group. Like stereotypes, conforming and expecting others to conform maintains cognitive balance. There are several ki
Could Schizophrenia Be The Answer To The Mysterious Vampire Legend Could Schizophrenia be the Answer to the Mysterious Vampire Legend? The vampire legend and many behaviors and experiences of schizophrenics seem to share many common traits. The traits that are most recognizable are fears of being enclosed, periods of semistarvation or complete starvation, which can be associated with periodic gorging, reversal of the day-night cycle, and a preoccupation with or dread of mirrors (Kayton 304). Tho
Critically Evaluate The Cognitive Theory Of Stereotyping. Critically evaluate the cognitive theory of stereotyping. B231: Social Interaction, Exam Paper 1998, Question 4. Graeme Gordon Stereotyping is a form of pre judgement that is as prevalent in today\'s society as it was 2000 years ago. It is a social attitude that has stood the test of time and received much attention by social psychologists and philosophers alike. Many approaches to, or theories of stereotyping have thus been raised. This
Depression Advertising.com COSHE.COM : Social Issues : Depression good overview Click Here to Search COSHE\'s Database Again Adolescent Depression Depression (also known as melancholia) is the state of sadness, decreased initiative, and introversion. It’s known as being blue, or just being down. Depression can be caused by anything that’s disturbing to the individual, or can be caused by massive amounts of stress. Anything that gives you a feeling of guilt can lead to depression. Adolescence is
Disability Essay In today’s society men have an attraction towards skinny women. The most gorgeous super models are thin and when other girls look at them, they get jealous. Many girls see this, and view themselves as being overweight and have a complex and a desire, which is to be skinny, this disease is called Anorexia. Anorexia is a disease, which affects mostly women and sometimes men. Anorexia is when you think you are fat, and you deprive yourself of food in order to be skinny. They see th
Dream DREAMS Theories attempting to explain the origin and functions of REM sleep include: (1) that REM sleep provides stimulation for the development of the brain; (2) that it performs a chemical restoration function, since during REM dreaming neuro-protein synthesis occurs along with the restoration of other depleted brain chemicals; (3) that it provides oculomotor (eye movement) coordination, since during non-REM sleep the eyes move independently of each other; (4) that it provides a vigilanc
Dreaming and Sleeping Dreams and dreaming are an important part of our lives and cultures of epopel around the world. They are a reliable source of insight, personal enrichment, and life affirming revelations. Dreams are the language of a person\'s subconscious mind. Before a person starts to dream, there are certain cylces or stages that a person goes through in their sleep. Sleeping is important in our lives. The ancient Geeks beleived that sleep was a grant. Manny people spend about 25 years
Dreams Dreams I don\'t use drugs, my dreams are frightening enough. (Escher) Why do we dream? Are they instructions from the spiritual world or just deep, hidden wishes that can be used to unlock the secrets of the unconscious mind? Nobody knows for sure. One theory that is prevalent today is that dreams result from the physiological exercise of the synapses of the brain. There is no proven fact on why we dream, which is why there are so many theories on the topic. There is Freud\'s theory that
Eating Disorders Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa: A condition characterized by intense fear of gaining weight or becoming obese, as well as a distorted body image, leading to an excessive weight loss from restricting food intake and excessive exercise. Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which persistent overconcern with the body weight and shape leads to repeat episodes of bingeing (consuming large amounts of food in a short time) associated with induced vomiting. Those are the clinical de
Eating Disorders An eating disorder is a way of using food to work out emotional problems. These illnesses develop because of emotional and/or psychological problems. Eating disorders are the way some people deal with stress. In today’s society, teenagers are pressured into thinking that bring thin is the same thing as being happy. Chemical balances in the brain that may also result in depression, obsessive compulsive disorders, and bi-polar disorders may also cause some eating disorders. Other
Ecological Self Diversity is a whirlwind of color through a society. There are no two people in the world that are exactly alike. Individuality distinguishes one person or thing from others (Landau, 364 Ed). A person’s environment as a whole: an interaction with others, experiences, and time, makes a collage of traits that distinguishes someone as an individual. David Sibley’s theory of the “Ecological Self” or Identity is bound by his determents of social, cultural, and spatial context. Sibley
Episodic Memory Introduction The mechanism of human memory recall is neither a parallel nor a sequential retrieval of previously learned events. Instead, it is a complex system that has elements of both sequential and parallel modalities, engaging all of the sensory faculties of the individual. On an everyday level, issues about memory and recall affect everyone. It has a bearing on ramifications from the trivial to matters of life and death. Thus, a particular student might worry about his or h
Expectancies As A Predictor Of Adolescent Alcohol Use INTRODUCTION This paper examines the use of an idea referred to as expectancy as a predictor of teen alcohol use. Expectancies are concepts that a society reinforces which go on to influence a person\'s behavior. Current clinical and field studies show that alcohol expectancies are reasonably accurate tools in estimating future drinking patterns. This paper sets out to determine the practical applications of this knowledge in the real classro
Family Values When raising a child one is taught values by their families that they feel are important for their child to have. I believe that family values consist of certain actions and qualities that are important to a family to uphold. Values that are important in my family are honesty, trust and to have respect for others. Each of these values is equally important in my family. They played a big role into making me the person I am now. Growing up in my family taught me that honesty is the b
Flattery Holds The Key It\'s a Saturday night and you want to go out for the evening. To do this you need the car, what do you do? Flattery is the way to go: Mom, did you lose weight? You look amazing! Is that a new hair color? New outfit? Your mom is so flattered that when you ask for the car she doesn\'t need to think twice before she hands you the keys. From that point on, you know that whenever you want something all you have to do is put on the charm, flash that big smile and tell a few whi
Flirting Flirting The New Flirting Game When it comes to flirting today, women are not waiting around for men to make the first move, as they would have. Monica Moore has spent more than 200 hours observing the way women flirt. Her findings are they give non-verbal cues that get a flirtation rolling fully two-thirds of the time. A man may think that he is making the first move because he is the one to literally go over and talk to the girl, but usually it is a look or an action the sets him off.
Freud and Marx Freud and Marx it can be argued were both, as individuals, dissatisfied with their societies. Marx more plainly than Freud, but Freud can also be seen as discontent in certain aspects such as his cynical view of human nature. Each were great thinkers and philosophers, but both seemed unhappy. Perhaps the social ills and trouble each perceived in the world about them were only the reflections of what each of the thinkers held within themselves. Each person observes the same world,
Frued 1. Freud defines three stages of sexuality, the oral, the anal and the oedipal stage. An infant in its oral stage learns that there is an external world through pleasure and pain. Human nature is governed by the pleasure principle. When the infant is being breast fed he/she feels pleasure and when pulled away from the breast the baby feels pain. The pleasure principle is a way of seeking pleasure in order to avoid pain. We can’t be happy all the time because three things threaten us. First
Gay Parenting Lesbian and Gay Parenting I. SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS Charlotte J. Patterson University of Virginia Like families headed by heterosexual parents, lesbian and gay parents and their children are a diverse group (Martin, 1993). Unlike heterosexual parents and their children, however, lesbian and gay parents and their children are often subject to prejudice because of sexual orientation that turns judges, legislators, professionals, and the public against them, frequently resulting
ghb and what it GHB, or gamma-hydroxybutyrate, is a nutrient that is part of the metabolism process in mammalians. It can be found in every cell of the human body. The greatest quantities can be found in the kidney, heart, skeletal muscles, and brown fat tissues (Chin and Kreutzer, 1992). Chin and Kruetzer also believe it to be a neurotransmitter, however that has not yet been proven. GHB is known to be a metabolite and also a precursor of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric
Hamlet Analyzed In Terms Of Aristotle’s Poetics English 106 4 December 1996 Hamlet Analyzed in Terms of Aristotle\'s Poetics Aristotle’s Poetics is considered the guide to a well written tragedy; his methods have been used for centuries. In Aristotle’s opinion, plot is the most important aspect of the tragedy, all other parts such as character, diction, and thought stem from the plot. Aristotle defines a tragedy as “…an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude
Happiness There is an ever-growing problem with our world; unhappiness. Unhappiness has plagued everyone at a time or two, sometimes even more. Because of this our world is suffering enormously: shootings, hate crimes, and wars are a few results of this widespread unhappiness. One might say there is no hope for our world, but there is. To end this unhappiness everyone should eat Skittles, own a goldfish, and get plenty of sunshine. One may ask, what can Skittles do? When the question should be w
Health People who have low self image, and low self esteem, are unhappy with whom they are in life. Things that are done well are often taken for granted. Where as mistakes are heavily looked upon. One\'s position in life and previous experiences can also add to negative feelings. Constantly being told you\'re headed no where or that you\'re nothing but a failure can lead to a low self esteem and low self image. There are many things that can be done to raise self image, and self esteem. Respond
How childhood history and culture affects how we live as adults Childhood history has a lot to do with how we live as adults because certain childhood events could trigger something that would last a life time. Take for example if a child fails at something and the parent does nothing to help the child, the child will grow up thinking that failing is alright and that he or she will have a hard time in life with their job or in school or life in general. Many events from a persons’ life can stick
Human Desire To Fit In Human Desire to Fit In Two common ways of handling a situation are either to do so according to one¹s own personal needs and desires with no specific regard to other people, or one can base a decision on how it will be viewed by others. The vast majority of people fall on the side of being worried about what others are saying and thinking. Both good and bad can come from living this way, but it has seemed to remain constant throughout history. People have a natural desire
Hypnosis The Encarta Encyclopedia defines hypnosis as, altered state of consciousness and heightened responsiveness to suggestion; it may be induced by normal persons by a variety of methods and has been used occasionally in medical and psychiatric treatment. Most frequently brought about through actions of an operator, or hypnotist , who engages the attention of a subject and assigns certain tasks to him or her while uttering monotonous, repetitive verbal commands; such tasks may include muscle
Impact Of Prematurity On Development Impact of Premature Birth on Development Years ago, premature birth almost always meant death for the baby. Today, however, we have the technology to nurture these infants’ development, and many of them survive to lead normal, healthy lives. Although, very premature infants (that is, those born before about the fifth month) are still not likely to survive, many born at five months and older will thrive. Some preterm babies, however, do have many obstacles to
Interventions In The Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called ‘narcissistic personality disorder’ is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narcissist, however, is often so pervasive that we tend to dehumanize hi
Jeffery Dahmer The serial killer that I chose to profile is Jeffery Dahmer. Dahmer brings both horrifying, yet amazing qualities to the table in the respect that he terrorized people, not only those that were his victims, but also people that lived both near and those around the country. Section I: Overview - Jeffery Dahmer - Born on May 21, 1960, at Evangelical Hospital in Milwaukee, Wisconsin - Jeffery Dahmer was found beaten by fellow inmates on the morning of November 28, 1994, as was pronou
Kicking The Habit Through Negative Reinforcement My addiction to nicotine progressed from casual social smoking to consuming two packs a week. Although I’ve only been smoking for about one year, I had to quit before my addiction became much stronger. Like most smokers, I’ve tried to quit cold turkey on many occasions, but the mood and the will power lasts only until my synapses (nerve endings) start screaming, crying, and pleading with my conscious for a cigarette. The intendment of my quest was
Love For Life Raised with strict family values, I cringe to phrases like, I can’t wait to get my children out of the house, or As soon as my children reach 18, they are on their own. I become shocked to discover that age defines the release date in which children are no longer supported by parents. Children are the offspring to which parents give birth to in life. Regardless of the age, an individual will always be a child to one’s mother or father and should receive support until, and beyond, t
Love In Scott Peck\'s Book The Road Less Traveled What\'s Love Got to do With It? That was Tina Turner\'s view of love in the late nineteen-eighties. Apparently Scott Peck, the author of The Road Less Traveled, felt the same way. Peck\'s view of love was a correction to what he thought everyone else thought love was. This paper will be an explanation of Peck\'s beliefs about love, a contrasting view on love, and my personal knowledge of Peck\'s beliefs. Peck had a very pessimistic and, at times,
Macbeth-fair is foul Clinton Sands World Literature Macbeth Discuss the theme of equivocation and “fair is foul and foul is fair” in the play? Shakespeare uses equivocation not to confuse but to either get across multiple meanings or to leave dialogue and events in the play open ended. Equivocation can be seen with the witches and whenever they talk. The witches are themselves a vague set of characters who talk in a puzzling riddle-like manner. For instance when Macbeth goes to see them for the
Maddness In order for one to fully understand the term “madness”, we first need to show what the word really means. After looking through numerous definitions and asking others on their views, the definition from the oxford dictionary seemed to sum up the general thoughts of my family and friends. “…a departure from what is normal or accepted, a moral or mental lapse.” These views might differ from person to person as morals and ideas change and societies accept different behaviors. Thus I belie
Meditation Webster\'s dictionary defines meditation as to reflect on; ponder, to engage in contemplation, which it really is, although, many people believe that meditation is a means of developing a more spiritual or religious life. Meditation does not necessarily have to be religious. Many people just meditate to relax or organize their thoughts. Meditation is a very broad subject since there are many ways in which to perform meditation. Not only are there many ways but, there are also many dif
Memory intro Introduction Memory is involved in all aspects of our lives and can be thought of as the to retain information and demonstrate retention through behaviour. We have vast amounts of knowledge stored in our memory system which we are able to access quickly and effortlessly, thus implying that stored knowledge must be highly organised to allow us to retrieve the appropriate information for a given situation. This organisation will be determined by the way that information is encoded int
Men And Women What influences a person’s identity? Is it their homes, parents, religion, or maybe where they live? When do they get one? Do they get it when they understand right from wrong, or when they can read, or are they born with it? Everyone has one and nobody has the same, is there a point in everyone’s life when they get one? A person’s identity is his own, nobody put it there and nobody can take it out. Everyone in this world has a different identity because they all make their own ove
Mental Rotation Of Images Abstract The idea of mental imagery has always been a controversial subject in the field of psychology. Many psychologists have argued that such a concept is impossible to measure because it can not be directly observed. Though they are right about this, it is not impossible to measure how quickly mental rotations of images are processed in our brains. Subjects in this experiment were presented two shapes simultaneously, via computer screen, and asked to make judgement,
Mind And Machine Mind and Machine: The Essay Technology has traditionally evolved as the result of human needs. Invention, when prized and rewarded, will invariably rise-up to meet the free market demands of society. It is in this realm that Artificial Intelligence research and the resultant expert systems have been forged. Much of the material that relates to the field of Artificial Intelligence deals with human psychology and the nature of consciousness. Exhaustive debate on consciousness and
Multiple Personality Disorder Multiple Personality Disorder More than two million cases can be found altogether in psychological and psychiatric records of multiple personality disorder also called dissociative identity disorder. It is often thought that multiple personality disorder is a trick, a bizarre form of play-acting that is committed by manipulative, attention-seeking individuals. It is not. Multiple personality disorder is a disorder of hiding wherein 80-90% of multiple personality dis
Narcissism On Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called ‘narcissistic personality disorder’ is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narciss
Nature vs Nature Nature vs. Nurture Psychologists have often questioned whether personality traits are inherited, and therefore a result of genetics, or if they are caused by the environment, and are therefore made. This has come to be known as the nature versus nurture controversy. Many psychologists throughout history have asked this question, and most agree the answer is both. Nature versus nurture has been an on going argument for over a century and will carry on further. Scientists have bee
Personality Test The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Test measures personality according to eight traits, in twos. The first set of traits tested is introversion and extroversion. When taking this test, I scored twenty-two introversion points and only six extroversion points. According to the test, I am an introvert. This means that I better relate to the world of ideas rather than the world of people or things. Introverts are energy conservers. They hold in stress, f
Phrenology Phrenology is basically the study of personality through the study of the shape of the skull. The basis of this theory is that the brain conforms to the shape of the head and its contours. This pseudoscience says that because we have isolated where different parts of personality come from we can tell how dominant this trait would be in a person’s life by the size of the piece of the brain. We have since proven that this theory is not true. Franz Joseph Gall is considered to be the fou
Plato Plato was a philosopher in the time of the distinguished Greek philosophers. He wrote a book entitled The Republic in which he explains some of his philosophy on subjects ranging from education to government. Plato constructed a model by which he proposed all governments evolve. He called it the Five Stages of Government. He suggested that there are five forms of government, which evolve out of one another; Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, Tyranny, and Aristocracy. A Timocracy is a governm
Post-Modern Victorian: A. S. Byatt\'s Possession Post-Modern Victorian: A. S. Byatt\'s Possession If I had read A. S. Byatt\'s novel Possession without having had British Literature, a lot of the novel\'s meaning, analogies, and literary mystery would have been lost to me. The entire book seems one big reference back to something we\'ve learned or read this May term. The first few lines of chapter one are poetry attributed to Randolph Henry Ash, which Byatt wrote herself. Already in those few li