Existence of Man For centuries man has grappled with the riddle of what it means to be a person. But the questions Who is man? and What is the meaning of life? are still unanswered. Yet, while man is still a long way from arriving at any acceptable definitions, there is deep within everyone the hint of an idea of what it means to be a whole person, that is happy, functioning and fulfilled. So, throughout history man has made a continuous search to find out what makes him whole. Every person is d
Existentialism Existentialism is a concept that became popular during the second World War in France, and just after it. French playrights have often used the stage to express their views, and these views came to surface even during a Nazi occupation. Bernard Shaw got his play "Saint Joan" past the German censors because it appeared to be very Anti-British. French audiences however immediately understood the real meaning of the play, and replaced the British with the Germans. Those sorts of "hid
The Existence of God For centuries, the idea of God has been a part of man\'s history. Past and present, there has always been a different integration consisting of the believers and the non-believers of God. The group of those who have "faith" in God tend to be related to one religion or another. On the other hand, the skeptics find the existence of God somewhat puzzling and try to seek the answers through scientific methods. Even as of today with all the modern technologies and the development
Camus\' "The Stranger": Choice and Individual Freedom Are Integral Components of Human Nature Camus\'s The Stranger is a grim profession that choice and individual freedom are integral components of human nature, and the commitment and responsibility that accompany these elements are ultimately the deciding factors of the morality of one\'s existence. Meursault is placed in an indifferent world, a world that embraces absurdity and persecutes reason; such is the nature of existentialist belief, t
FGM: Female Genital Mutilation Female genital mutilation has been practiced in country\'s around the world for thousands of years, and will continue to be practiced, until those that practice it decide to stop. Many people who live in country\'s that are more industrialized, like the U.S.A., tend to think that no ones believes on right and wrong is correct, except their own. That is what comes up in conversation about FGM. Personally, I am not pro-FGM when it comes to its practice. However, I be
Utilitarianism The concept of sustainable development is an attempt to balance two moral demands placed on the environment. The first demand is for development, including economic development or growth. It arises mainly from the interests of people who live in developing countries. Their present poverty gives them a low quality of life and calls urgently for steps to improve their quality of life. The second demand is for sustainability, for ensuring that we do not risk the future in the sake of
The Five Factor Model of Personality The precise definition of personality has been a point of discussion amongst many different theorists within many different disciplines since the beginning of civilisation. Personality can be defined as "the distinctive and characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behaviour that define an individual\'s personal style and influence his or her interactions with the environment" (Atkinson, Atkinson, Smith & Bem, 1993: 525). It can be proposed that person
The Formation of An Individual: Cases, Terms, & Tools Man needs a polity, and in the same way a polity needs man. This is the focus of the first chapter in the formation of an individual. The formation of an individual is a very complicated process, yet it is a process that is very necessary. Through the formation of some types of government man tries to form himself from his acquired beliefs. The most basic form of government is a couple, but it branches out to entire societies. In these societ
Freedom and Reason in Kant Alice Furnari 24 /2/97 Morality, Kant says, cannot be regarded as a set of rules which prescribe the means necessary to the achievement of a given end; its rules must be obeyed without consideration of the consequences that will follow from doing so or not. A principle that presupposes a desired object as the determinant of the will cannot give rise to a moral law; that is, the morality of an act of will cannot be determined by the matter or content of the will for whe
Our Free Will We ought then regard the present state of the universe as the effect of its previous state and the cause of the one which is to follow. An intelligence knowing at a given instant of time all the forces operating in nature, as well as the position at that instant of all things of which the universe consists, would be able to comprehend the motions of the largest bodies in the universe and those of the smallest atoms in a single formula - provided that it was sufficiently powerful to
Human Nature Is Inherently Bad There are many theories as to Human nature. One of which exists, under the thoughts of a prominent philosopher, and founder of Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud. His deductive argument, entails his conclusion that man is bad, or as Freud explains it as Homo Homini Lupus (man is a wolf to man). Freud justification for such a drastic approach type conclusion, can by described as basically atrocities of the century Freud lived in. In example the invasion of the Huns, as a
Functionalism and Physicalism While acquiring knowledge on the topics of Functionalism and Physicalism, I ran across many disagreement between the two. Interestingly, those disagreements gave me an impression of different sides arguing with their own support from their own theories. As if an Arabian and a Roman were arguing about whether the number eleven is an "Arabic" number or a "Roman" number. Though, as I read more and more of the readings (especially Putnam\'s), I started to see a pattern
Galileo and Newton 2/4/97 Galileo believed the physical world to be bounded. He says that all material things have "this or that shape" and are small or large in relation to other things. He also says that material objects are either in motion or at rest, touching or not touching some other body, and are either one in number, or many. The central properties of the material world are mathematical and strengthened through experimentation. Galileo excludes the properties of tastes, odors, colors, a
Genetics Engineering Hollywood has been showing it to us for years. Frankenstein, The Six Million Dollar Man, Jurassic Park, etc.; the list goes on. All these movies show man\'s instinct to create. This fiction of playing God in recent years is becoming a reality. In 1952, deoxyribonucleic acid was discovered(Dewitt, 1994). The spiral staircase molecule, DNA. DNA is the building block of life. This block holds the code for every aspect of any life on the planet Earth. DNA decides whether one lif
Kant: Goodness The philosopher I used is Immanuel Kant. He was very practical in his thinking of goodness. A quote of his was "I ought, therefore I can". His view was good anything is under good will . He believed good will was the primary goodness, good in its purest form, and that it couldn\'t be corrupted. Good feelings and good intentions and actions can be interpreted in different ways; man can corrupt these things into evil...even though it still might be good in that man\'s eyes. What he\
Happiness The standard definition of happiness is that it is a condition of supreme well-being and good spirits. There can be many definitions of the word happiness. It can be applied to many examples. Many people are often in search of happiness. One meaning can be explained when someone tells a joke. If one finds the joke funny, they laugh. This condition of happiness is the most temporary one, for it only lasts a moment. No one will be affected deeply into their emotions by a joke. It is more
Happiness Happiness: In one word, this concept exemplifies the American dream. People go to any means by which to obtain the many varied materials and issues that induce pleasures in each individual, and intrinsically, this emotion remains the ultimate goal, John Stuart Mill, a nineteenth century philosopher, correctly advocated the pursuit of happiness, and maintained the concept that above all other values, pleasure existed as the final destination, Mill\'s hedonistic views correctly and ratio
Hemingway and "Nada" In "The light of the world" written by Ernest Hemingway Steve Ketchel, a boxer symbolizes a Jesus figure for a woman called Alice. Alice, a 350 pound, unpleasant prostitute struggles with her current life. Her central being focuses at the belief that she had a sexual relationship with Steve Ketchel. This wishful illusion arises from a complex she has because of her ugly and unpleasant appearance. Nick Adams, the main Hemingway character, believes that Alice, although she has
The Quarrel About Historical Explanation The discussion of the philosophical question of historical explanation is in reality a disagreement concerning the nature of the philosophic method. There are primarily two sides taken in this argument, those who agree with Carl Hempel and those that do not. According to Hempel a historical event is only sufficiently explained when it logically fits a set of confirmed pre-existing conditions along with some universal laws. Certainly all things cannot easi
Thomas Hobbes: What Is The Difference Between Obligations In foro interno and In foro externo, and When Do We Have Such Obligations? According to Thomas Hobbes, there are certain laws of nature which exist in the absence of an organized government. These laws are extremely cut throat, and place people in extremely dangerous situations where their lives are in danger. Government is the answer to this dangerous situation, but it is here that the question of obligation comes into question. Does one
Hollywood\'s Attack on Religion The section that I have chosen to analyze from the book Hollywood vs. America is "The Attack on Religion." In this part of the book, Michael Medved discusses the shift in attitude Hollywood has made toward religion, from acceptable to contemptible. He takes a look at the messages being sent in films, music and television in the last 15 to 20 years and analyzes their effects. In general, Hollywood depicts religion in an unfavorable manner, according to Medved. More
Homosexuality Homosexuality has been on debate for numerous years. It is mentioned in the Bible which is thousands of years old. But recently two philosophers have spoken how they feel about Homosexuality. Michael Levin and Richard Mohr\'s views on the subject are in conflict with one another. Levin argues that homosexuality is abnormal because it is a misuse of body parts that have evolved for use in heterosexual intercourse (Levin 354). Furthermore, because natural selection has made the exerc
How Technology Effects Modern America The microeconomic picture of the U.S. has changed immensely since 1973, and the trends are proving to be consistently downward for the nation\'s high school graduates and high school drop-outs. "Of all the reasons given for the wage squeeze international competition, technology, deregulation, the decline of unions and defense cuts ­ technology is probably the most critical. It has favored the educated and the skilled," says M. B. Zuckerman, editor-in-chief o
How To Get Married and Stay Married To The Perfect Mate!! This book will talk about the ways and theories of how to stay married one you are married. It will cover stuff like communication, similarity, physical attractiveness, similarity, balance and equity theory, and proximity. Communication is important in relationships. I will cover the aspects of non-verbal and verbal communications. In the book I will convey the differences in the way men and woman think and this will help give a better un
Humanism Kevin Clark Philosophy p.2 The word “humanism” has a number of meanings, and because there are so many different meanings it can be quite confusing if you don\'t know what kind of humanism someone is talking about. Literary Humanism is a devotion to the humanities or literary culture. Renaissance Humanism is the spirit of learning that developed at the end of the middle ages with the revival of classical letters and a renewed confidence in the ability of human beings to determine for th
Human Perception: An Intimate Look Into The Most Intriguing Aspect of Modern Psychology. It determines what we see, what we do, what we feel. It controls our emotions, our thoughts, and our conscience. What is this remarkable element of the human mind? It is called perception. Perception as defined in the Merrian- Webster Dictionary as the following- 1 a : awareness of the elements of environment through physical sensation b: Physical sensation interpreted in the light of experience 2 a : quick,
Hume\'s Mind Game Travis Slaby phil-101 Alex Clarkson 2-17-97 The human mind is a very intricate machine. There have been many people that have attempted, and failed, to explain how the human mind operates. After reading Hume, I was in agreement with a lot of what he was explaining. Hume, in my mind, has come the closest to uncovering the minds operations. Robert Hume dealt with a lot of what Decarte talked about in his writings. The difference between Decarte and Hume is that Hume "ironed out"
Hume and Descartes on The Theory of Ideas David Hume and Rene Descartes are philosophers with opposing views about the origination of ideas. Descartes believed there were three types of ideas which are, innate, adventitious and those from imagination. He stated since he exists and his idea of what a perfect being is, such as God, then God exists. Hume, on the other had, believed ideas came only from one thing, impressions. Both theories have their strengths and weaknesses but I like Hume\'s theo
Existentialists: I Am Me, and You Are You Existentialists view mankind as individuals whose unique past experiences establish personal characteristics that set all of us apart. This idea can be best expressed in an intuitive statement by a celebrated individualist, Tarzan. “Me Tarzan, you Jane” is at the nucleus of the beliefs of the existential atom. This seemingly simplistic statement relates to existentialism by leading us to the idea of man\'s individualism, guiding us to belief of existence
Existentialist Themes of Anxiety and Absurdity In a world with such a vast amount of people their exists virtually every different belief, thought, and ideology. This means that for every argument and every disagreement that their exists two sides of relative equal strength. It is through these disagreements that arguments are formed. Arguments are the building blocks in which philosophers use to analyze situations and determine theories of life. For the purpose of this paper I will try and argu
Impermanence, Selflessness, and Dissatisfaction Buddhism is neither a religion nor a philosophy, but rather a way of life. This does not imply that Buddhism is nothing more than an ethical code: it is a way of moral, spiritual and intellectual training leading to complete freedom of the mind. (DeSilva, 1991:p 5). Of the many Buddhist sects, Zen Buddhism places particular emphasis on living ‘the right\' life, and does not revolve around rite and ritual. Buddhism outlines the three characteristics
Psychology INTRODUCTION The study of the way people think and behave is called psychology. The field of psychology has a number of sub-disciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior. Social psychology, for example, deals with human thought and action in a social context, while physiological psychology is concerned with thought and behavior at the level of neurology. Another division of psychology, comparative psychology compares the thought an
Investing in the Future Tobin Lichti Psych 101 Jon Drummond TU 11:05 Welfare and school reform are two of the most widely discussed issues in politics today. Many people are calling for reduction or elimination welfare programs as well as programs that provide breakfast and lunch at schools. They argue that people should be able to provide for themselves and their children with minimal government assistance, and spending other people\'s tax dollars to assist the less fortunate only makes the pro
Thesis: Is There a God or is He(?) an Illusion? An illusion is one\'s own interpretation and perception of someone or something. It can be a strong belief or a wish. They are not necessarily false or errors. The strength of the illusion lies in the strength of wish fulfillment. For example - People, at first, interpret phenomena\'s according to their experience and knowledge of their every day life. They project their own character into the circumstance presented and regard it as somehow "ensoul
The Existence of God The existence of a God has for generations been the topic of fierce debate. This most usually occurring between members of the religious society and, everybody else. As a matter of fact the religious world itself has not always been able to agree on God. This has resulted in many a holy man to take up the fight for his deity through the realm of words. Many theories have been proposed, and all think that theirs proves beyond a doubt on whether or not God exists. To write thi
Ayn Rand\'s "The Fountainhead" Imagine power as a form of free flowing energy, a source found within every one and for each individual. Assume that to gain power, one has to tap this resevoir of immense proportions and relish upon the rich harvest to their hearts desires. Consequently, when there is such a dealing of concentrated materials, nature takes charge and similarly to other physical abstracts, rendering this package lethal, with the potential for untold destruction. In other words, powe
James Rachels\' Death and Dying James Rachels is one of the most controversial philosophers talked about in today\'s society. One of his most talked about topics is whether a person has a right to die or not. Not much is known about Rachels expect for the many articles and books he has written. In the controversy of letting a person die or killing him, he does not try to explain which method is good and which method is bad. He however tries to explain why they both are bad to a certain degree. R
John Locke: Property Rights Perhaps one of, if not the, most historically influential political thinkers of the western world was John Locke. John Locke, the man who initiated what is now known as British Empiricism, is also considered highly influential in establishing grounds, theoretically at least, for the constitution of the United States of America. The basis for understanding Locke is that he sees all people as having natural God given rights. As God\'s creations, this denotes a certain e
John Rawls and Utilitarianism Heath C. Hoculock The social contract theory of John Rawls challenges utilitarianism by pointing out the impracticality of the theory. Mainly, in a society of utilitarians, a citizens rights could be completely ignored if injustice to this one citizen would benefit the rest of society. Rawls believes that a social contract theory, similar those proposed by Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, would be a more logical solution to the question of fairness in any government. So
Does Science Explain All? In the beginning there was darkness. Then there was light. Then there was consciousness. Then there were questions and then there was religion. Religions sprouted up all over the world as a response to some of humanity\'s most troubling questions and fears. Why are we here? Where do we come from? Why does the world and nature act as it does? What happens when you die? Religions tended to answer all these questions with stories of gods and goddesses and other supernatura
Personal Writing: Changing Grades and The Consequences I was about to leave my algebra class one day when the teacher asked me a question. "Could you do help me out with my rollbook program?" he asked. "Sure, how can I help?" I replied. "I\'m not sure about how to save back-up copies of my work. Could you show me how?" he said. At this moment, I realized the scope of his question. I would be able to acess the grades for all of his classes. "Ok, Where are your disks?" I answered. "Right here. I r
Justice Distributive Justice Philosophy 10 Instructor: Phil Freneau Should the strong be required to support the weak? How does society "distribute" wealth among its members? These are the questions. There are three basic sides to this issue. The permissive system entitles individuals to a subsistence income supply for existing as a human. The puritan system requires that people at least be willing to contribute to society in order to receive a subsistence income. Finally, the Individual view ho
Plato\'s Argument For A Just Life Plato\'s argument for the benefits of a just life is intrinsically linked to his definition of good and its relation to people\'s desires. He begins by showing that when the objective of a desire is simple (e.g. quenching a thirst), the desire must be correspondingly simple. Since thirst is a simple desire, the man\'s objective must also be simplistic and should we assign an adjective to his objective, we would falsely complicate it. In addition, Plato believes
Kanflict: How Humans Have Risen Above The Divine November 23, \'96 Philosophy: Lily Nov.22 Until Emmanuel Kant, God, primarily the western Religion of Christianity\'s concept of God, was of an elevated stature over humans when concerning the issue of morality. This however was to be questioned due to this philosophers works on this subject. All philosophers preceding him also tried to solve and define this mystical thing called moral good. For Kant this journey had a side benefit. He discovered
Kant\'s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Moral The central concept of Kant\'s Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals is the categorical imperative. “The conception of an objective principle, in so far as it is obligatory for a will, is called a command (of reason), and the formula of the command is called an Imperative.” (Abbott, 30) An imperative is something that a will ought or shall do because the will is obligated to act in the manner in which it conforms with moral
Lamarck\'s Influence on the Development of Darwin\'s Theory of Evolution Dec. 4 1996 Marc Weinstein There have been many ideas on the theory of evolution. Some simply take our existence for granted, others prefer to explain all evolution in terms of the bible and the presence of a God. However, there are those who have researched the topic of evolution and have offered an explanation as to where a species comes from and how they evolved in the manner that they did. This type of science has been
Laughing and Sense of Humor “What is it that differentiates human beings most revealingly? Some say it is their varying degrees of compassion; others say it is amounts of prudence; still others, people\'s differing appreciations of beauty, or whatever makes them angry. And there are other possibilities worth considering. But in truth nothing is so revealing as a person\'s sense of humor.” It is not very hard to notice the many differences between people. There are thousands of things that differ
The One Truth of Reality The one single truth of reality is not measured or distinguished -- it is the ultimate paradox. The journey by which one achieves this truth can be a journey of increasing realizations of paradoxes, and finally, freedom from the bubble of limitation of a mind that would perceive such paradoxes as paradoxes in the first place. Truth is the same as spiritual feeling. Of spiritual perception. Of clear perception. Of freedom of the mind. Freedom of the soul. Freedom of the H
Loss of Freedom Through Apathy We do have freedom in this country but we simply choose to ignore it. We live in a democracy, the most just kind of government, where we the people hold supreme power. It is an institution that is a culmination of revolutions, wars, philosophies and heroes. It is the greatest and proudest government in the world. One reason for this is that Americans have a right citizens of Iraq and China and North Korea only dreamed they could have. It took one of the greatest mi
Love and Sacrifices What does it mean to love another? To love another person means to feel compassionate towards them, to "feel" what they feel. Caring about someone, and what happens to them is also a sign of love. Sharing a relationship with someone means that you have to be responsible and have to be aware that there will be times when things go wrong. Loving someone means taking these "wrong" things and trying to fix them. What are some signs of love? Making sacrifices is one sign of devoti