Philosophy

Berkeley As man progressed through the various stages of evolution, it is assumed that at a certain point he began to ponder the world around him. Of course, these first attempts fell short of being scholarly, probably consisting of a few grunts and snorts at best. As time passed on, though, these ideas persisted and were eventually tackled by the more intellectual, so-called philosophers. Thus, excavation of "the external world" began. As the authoritarinism of the ancients gave way to the more
Biological Determinism 1. According to the author of the article "All in the Genes?", there is no intrinsic causality between genetics and intelligence. The author analyses different aspects of biological determinism, and supplies many examples, which illustrate aspects of this problem that are being discussed since the time when these ideas became popular. He does not agree with biological determinist that the intellectual performance of a person depends on genes inherited from his parents. The
If Buddha Were Alive Today, How Would He Answer The Question: "How Should One Live"? What is right? Who is to say what is right? How do we know what we are doing is right? These are all questions that allude to how should one live? Different people have different opinions on this area. Buddha\'s theory is one way to answer the question. Buddha has four noble truths. These four noble truths are suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the way of practice leading to the
Business and Ethics UNIVERSITY OF LA VERNE VAFB, CALIFORNIA ECBU 346 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION FEBURARY 12, 1997 BY DOUG RONING From a business perspective, working under government contracts can be very lucrative. In general, a steady stream of orders keep coming in, revenue increases and the company continues to grow. There are a few obvious downfalls to working with government contracts; a higher quality is to be expected as well as extensive research accompanied by accurate and complete documen
Can Computers understand? 1) Thinking is the hallmark of understanding. 2) Only special machines can think. 3) If something can think it can understand. 4) Only special machines that can think can understand. 5) "Mental" states and their resulting actions are products of the center of activity (brain). 6) To understand, thoughts must be produced by the brain. 7) A computer\'s mental states and events are controlled by a program. 8) The program is not a product of the computer. 9) A computer does
Kant: the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative Kantian philosophy outlines the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for determining morality of actions. This formula is a two part test. First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim could be a universal law for all rational beings. Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. Once it is clear that the maxim passes both prongs of the test, there are n
The Censorship in the American Society Jennifer Stern ENC 1102 Essay 1 6 February, 1997 As society emerges into the twenty-first century, control amongst the people is still evident in the actions sought by both houses of Congress. Individuals, in many cultures, are being sheltered from the controversial issues. By suppressing ideas or themes of materials in which a person does not agree, portrays a false atmosphere of society. When the Congress feels that people do not have the ability to form
Chance or Planning Maureen C. Lett HSS 208-Dr. O\'Hara April 17, 1996 Intelligence and planning are necessary factors in scientific research, however chance and luck are also important and somewhat necessary factors. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin and the memoir, The Double Helix, written by James Watson, prove this assertion. Charles Darwin, James Watson and Francis Crick were all intelligent men that planned their experiments, however without chance and luck their success and scientific a
Charles Darwin and Imperialism England went through dramatic changes in the 19th century. English culture, socio-economic structure and politics where largely influenced by the principles of science. Many social expressions occurred due to these changes. Transformations which categorized this time period could be observed in social institutions; for instance: the switch from popular Evangelicalism to atheism, emergence of feminism and the creation of new political ideologies (Liberalism, Conserv
Child Abuse: Saddest and Most Tragic Problem Today Child abuse is one of the saddest and most tragic problems in America today. Each year an estimated one to two million American children are being beaten, neglected, or sexually abused by their parents or guardians. Infants only a few days old as well as teenagers are subject to child abuse. There are four types of child abuse: physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. Child abuse is a serious problem that plagues Amer
Juvenile Delinquency Remember doing something mischievous or wrong when you were a kid and getting the label "delinquent" slapped on you ? Did you ever wonder what it meant ? That is what my topic for today is . . . juvenile delinquency. In this report I will: define juvenile delinquency, give the extent of juvenile delinquency, give some suggestions on what causes juvenile delinquency, and what is being done in various communities to deal with this growing problem. The legal term juvenile delin
Classical Theory Structure Introduction By way of illustration, in this document we will describe and explain the classical structural theory as presented by Max Weber. To highlight the advantages and disadvantages of this classical structure as used in a realistic modern organization we will apply this theroy as used today in our public police department. Classical Structural Theory In the classical structural theory a person is hired for their technical expertise rather than on the recommendat
Practical Cognition Theories of Knowledge (Karl Marx) In his early years of writing, Karl Marx\'s ideas were similar to American Pragmatism, especially his ideas about epistemology. He defines truth in a pragmatic fashion and explains cognition in terms of practical needs of the human being. While some of his ideas were not followed to their logical conclusion, nor made sense, the fundamentals of his epistemology contain valuable ideas which can be viewed as furthering pragmatism as a respectabl
Commitment When you abide to do something with all your heart and soul. We live in a cynical world where commitment is often times obscured by day to day life. Many believe that our goals are a commitment to ourselves. People make goals for themselves in order to strive for greatness, but a man once told me that goals not written down are only dreams. We can dream all we like but without commitment to do the things we set for ourselves nothing can be achieved. When we see a future that will enha
Compare how Hobbes and Augustine Think The Condition of War Arises and Defend One Author\'s Account of \'ordinary\' Morality As An Antedote For It Augustine believes that the condition of war arises when the perfectly ordered and harmonious enjoyment of God is disrupted (The City of God, 690) whereas Hobbes believes that the original state of nature is a condition of constant war, which rational and self-motivated people want to end. Augustine argues that peace is more than the absence of hostil
Compare Happiness and Life Between D. H. Lawrence\'s "You Touched Me" and Friedrich Nietzche\'s "The Use and Abuse of History Taken From The Twilight Of the Idols." INTRODUCTION In this paper, I won\'t stick to only one topic. I will compare different topics, such as happiness and life between two romantic writers, D. H. Lawrence and Friedrich Nietzsche from D. H. Lawrence\'s You touched me and Friedrich Nietzche\'s The use and abuse of history taken from The twilight of the Idols. I will start
Augustine\'s "Confessions" A philosophical question faces Christians, and in fact all theists, that challenges the belief in God. To theists, God is an omnipotent, perfect God. He is good. Theists accept this, and embrace it, for how else can they worship God and give their lives to Him unless He is good? However, n this world evil is constantly seen all around us. Because God is the author of all things in this world, and he is good, theists must then ask themselves what evil is and where it ca
Confucianism and Christianity M. Douglas McKinney Philosophy of Religion The premise of Confucian teachings are centered around the idea of Jen or the ³virtue of humanity (Ching 68).² To accomplish this divinity, five relationships must be honored: ruler and minister, father and son, husband and wife, elder and younger brother, and friend and friend (Hopfe). These relationships led a push for a revolution of the political system to adopt the methods of Jen. Confucius sought to revive the ancient
Confuciunism Confuciunism is a philosophy vased on the teachings of Confucius, a Chinese philosopher/teacher. Confucius highly stressed ethics. It is thought the reason for this is because the China of his time was corrupt. Confucius thought the way to live with good ethics was to follow the five virtues: Jen; to do good on others, yi; rightsiosness by justice, li; religious and moral ways of acting , chih; wisdom and hsin; faithfulness. All of these being represented by the parts of a tree for
Confucius If our government was run for the people, and not for the enrichment of its rulers, the US would be a more tightly unified nation. Confucius stressed that a government be run for the well-being of the people, and if that was applied today, results would be outstanding. Confucius also said to put aside military conquests and to work for the good of the country. Applied today, that would really help our USA. Confucius taught that government should be run for the well-being of the people.
Conscience Webster\'s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary defines conscience as "the sense or consciousness of the moral goodness or blameworthiness of one\'s own conduct, intentions, or character together with a feeling of obligation to do right or good." In A Man for All Seasons, each character\'s conscience plays the ultimate role in the outcome of the story. "Individual conscience" is trait that each character possesses. This trait differs in intensity throughout the play in each of the main c
Creativity Creativity is the sole heart of modernization, technology and the arts. Without creativity, humanity would still thrive in caves. There is no argument against creativity being an important aspect of our society, there is, however, a question whether creativity is spawned by mental disorder. Albert Einstein came up with ideas that seemed impossible or eccentric. Froyd\'s psychology theorems were laughed at, but now widely used and accepted. Both men were highly successful with their wo
A Critical Appraisal of: Beowulf and Gilgamesh There are many differences and critical comparisons that can be drawn between the epics of Beowulf and Gilgamesh. Both are historical poems which shape their respected culture and both have major social, cultural, and political impacts on the development of western civilization literature and writing. Before any analysis is made, it is vital that some kind of a foundation be established so that a further, in-depth exploration of the complex nature o
Descartes\' Skeptical Argument and Reponses by Bouwsma and Malcolm In this essay, I will examine Rene Descartes\' skeptical argument and responses by O.K. Bouwsma and Norman Malcolm. I intend to prove that while both Bouwsma and Malcolm make points that refute specific parts of Descartes\' argument in their criticisms, neither is sufficient in itself to refute the whole. In order to understand Descartes\' argument and its sometimes radical ideas, one must have at least a general idea of his moti
Culture, Nature & Freedom: Treating Juvenile Offenders. Groneman Argiro, T. W. Civ. 205 December 12,1996 In Kansas, Juvenile offenders are sent to “Youth Centers”. These are merely Child prisons, lockdown facilities for kids. This style of treatment goes against every idea of growth put forward in this class. In this paper I will try to justify the use of residential treatment schemes through the ideas found in several of this semesters authors; including T.Huxtley, Rousseau, DuBois, Freud, A.Hu
Hume In explaining Hume\'s critique of the belief in miracles, we must first understand the definition of a miracle. The Webster Dictionary defines a miracle as: a supernatural event regarded as to define action, one of the acts worked by Christ which revealed his divinity an extremely remarkable achievement or event, an unexpected piece of luck. Therefore, a miracle is based on one\'s perception of past experiences, what everyone sees. It is based on a individuals own reality, and the faith in
A Study of Depression and Relationships A primary concern for Psychology research is depression. Depression affects a great deal of our population and many aspects of an individual\'s mental health and well-being. In my research of books, articles, and Internet pages on depression, I chose to base my paper mainly on a 1994 article of a study of depression, entitled Depression, Working Models of Others, and Relationship Functioning, by Katherine B. Carnelley, Paula R. Pietromonaco, and Kenneth Ja
Descartes\' Meditation One Being a foundationalist, Descartes needs to destroy the foundations of his beliefs so that in his Meditations he will be able to build upon new foundations of undeniable and self evident truths. In order to do this Descartes must first find a valid argument that will allow him to doubt his foundation beliefs and in turn doubt what is considered to be reality. He begins by first noting that one can not trust their own senses, because we can be deceived by our sciences.
Can One Perceive Or Confirm The Existence Of An Idea Or Object That Is External To Him Mainly - God? "I think therefore I am." Man wills, refuses, perceives, understands, and denies many principles. As explained by Rene\' Descartes, man is a thinking thing, a conscious being who truthfully exists because he is certain that it is so. All that man perceives is internally present and not external to him or his mind. The focal point of the third meditation that must be dealt with is: Can one perceiv
Direct Democracy vs Representative Democracy The term Democracy is derived from two Greek words, demos, meaning people, and kratos, meaning rule. These two words form the word democracy which means rule by the people. Aristotle, and other ancient Greek political philosophers, used the phrase, \'the governors are to be the governed\', or as we have come to know it, \'rule and be ruled in turn\'. The two major types of democracy are Representative Democracy and Direct Democracy. Clearly the argume
Discussion of the Feasibility of Miracles and the Grounds for Christianity Existing Without Miracles Kurt Erler Philosophical Classics 11/11/96 In the following Discussion, I will point out the facts and ideas that disagree with Hume\'s ideas. The ideas are the ones on miracles in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding involving Section ten Of Miracles. The idea of this is using the circle philosophical argument. If one agrees that Christians believe in the Bible, and that miracles have peopl
Distractions In Life " I left the woods for as good a reason as I went there. Perhaps, it seemed to me that I had several more lives to live, and could not spare any time for that one." -Henry David Thoreau Many times I would find myself in a state of mass confusion. It was as if I had no perception of where I would go with my life. I was trapped in a realm of things which were unfamiliar to me. When I tried to experience these new adventures I ended up back where I started in a slow state of de
Does God Exist? St. Thomas Aquinas has written several important works. Some of them are: The Disputed Questions on the Power of God, Exposition of Dionysius on the Divine Names and Disputed Questions on Spiritual Creatures. Most of Aquinas\'s works have been written to try to prove the existence of God. Aquinas has been a firm believer that everything had to have a creator and the only possible solution would be something called God. It is with this idea that Aquinas\'s Third Way was written. I
Richard Swinburne\'s "The Problem of Evil": God\'s Existence Philosophers have looked for ways to explain God\'s existence for centuries. One such argment that the believer must justify in order to maintain the possibility of God\'s existence is the problem of evil. In his essay, "The Problem of Evil," by Richard Swinburne, the author attempts to explain how evil can exist in a world created by an omniscient, omnipotent, omnibenevolent Being, namely God. Swinburne uses to free-will defense and s
Does Video Game Violence Affect Children? Abstract Does Video Game Violence Affect Children? This project shows if video game violence affects children. Many children between the ages of eight years old and ten years old will be observed before, during, and after playing violent video games. Looking for violent behavior before, during, and after playing violent video games is the whole experiment. The conclusion is that most children have no problems after playing the violent videogames. I think
Do We Have Souls? On the question of \'Do we have souls\' and \'Can they survive after death\', this writer will attempt a reasoned explanation and defense of my views to this philosophical question. After careful explanation of my own views , thoughts, and careful examination of the selected materials for this paper; I have come to this conclusion: unlike the problem of free will, the question of human beings having souls and their survival after the physical body is deceased, is not an easily
Transcendentalism and A Belief In A "Higher Power" We do not have good reasons to believe in something transcendental. Most of the arguments in favor of God, or a so-called "higher power" are based on faith and emotion, and not a clear logical argument. In fact, these arguments are often in favor of throwing logic out the window. In many ways, this question is similar to someone attempting to prove the existence of an invisible elephant. It is far easier to prove that the elephant does not exist
Dreams Since the dawn of mankind, man has been searching for the answer to just one question: Why do we dream? I believe strongly that the reason is not clear- cut and as easy to answer as it might seem. I think that dreams range in meaning and importance. When someone has a dream, there are many possible types of dreams they could have. First of these possibilities is for a dream that involves absolutely no meaning whatsoever. The dream is meaningless and involves a chain or series of events th
Dreams Their Analysis The assignment is to recall a dream and analyze it from one or two theoretical perspectives we\'ve learned thus far in dream analysis. Dreams have been a vehicle to express emotions, thoughts and feelings. Sometimes they pose questions which have been rooted in our conscious. Dreams are personalized works which we have consciously directed and created in our minds and no one interpretation is right or wrong. Weeks later upon receiving this assignment I had an incredible dre
Dualism I believe that the popular or "ghost in the machine" form of substance dualism best solves the mind body problem. My views in this area have been influenced by my twelve years of Catholic education. The soul, or mind, depending on your level of belief, was a complete and separate entity and was the center of a human being. The body was an ambulatory device that the soul directed. The idea that the mind is a separate entity and that it is independent of the physical body is the central po
Early to Bed “Early to bed early to rise makes a man healthy wealthy and wise,” is one of the most widely quoted proverbs from Benjamin Franklin\'s Poor Richard\'s Almanac. This proverb is seldom disputed however I fail to see the logic behind it. I think that he who goes to bed early misses out on a lot of things and must be antisocial. Let us just say that everybody in the world sleeps eight hours a day, and every one goes to bed at about eleven and gets up around seven but he who wishes to be
Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe was born near London on the 19th of January 1809. His mother was an actor and his father was a doctor. When Poe was 2 years old his father disappeared. His mother, who was seriously ill in tuberculosis, took Poe and his sister to Richmond, Virginia. Poe\'s mother died soon after this. The two siblings became then separated and Poe was taken care of by the wealthy family of the Allans. Due to Mr. Allans work the family had to move to England, where they spent five
Emily Dickinson: Transcendentalist Experience Through Imagination The early 19th century ideas of transcendentalism, which were introduced by Ralph Emerson and David Thoreau, where man as an individual becomes spiritually consumed with nature and himself through experience are contrasted by Emily Dickinson, who chose to branch off this path by showing that a transcendentalist experience could be achieved through imagination alone. These three monumental writers set the boundaries for this new re
Enlightenment: The Light Bulb of the 1700\'s Throughout history many people have changed society with their ideas and actions. Two philosophers whose ideas and actions changed society are Voltaire and John Lock. Martin Luther and Galileo also changed society. John Lock and Voltaire both fought for basic human rights. Voltaire fought for basic religious freedom. He claimed that if god created the Catholic religion and god loves all people, then why does the Catholic religion have the right to tor
Euthanasia Euthanasia - is it killing or letting die? In the last thirty years, this has been a highly controversial topic, the worldly morals versus the Christian. Although there are certain instances where it is justifiably considered to be letting die, it is essentially killing. Euthanasia comes from a Greek word, meaning "easy death," and is now often associated with the infamous Dr. Kevorkian. There are three types of euthanasia - what doctors consider to be "letting the patient die," for i
Euthanasia: An Overview There has been much debate in recent American society over the legality and morality of a patients right-to-die. Current legal statue prohibits any form of euthanasia, however, there are many moral and ethical dilemmas concerning the controversy. For the purposes of this essay, I will define euthanasia as the implementation of a decision that a person\'s life will come to an end before it need stop. In other words, it is a life ending when it would otherwise be prolonged.
Euthanasia Michael Wilson FYSM 136-01 9/15/96 Professor Lee A long time ago, culture was universal and permanent. There was one set of beliefs, ideals, and norms, and these were the standard for all human beings in all places and all times. We, however, live in the modern world. Our ethics are not an inheritance of the past, completed and ready for universal application. We are in the situation of having to form our own beliefs and meanings of life. This struggle is now obvious in the contempora
Euthanasia Mark T. Maxwell Abstract This paper will define Euthanasia and assisted suicide. Euthanasia is often confused with and associated with assisted suicide, definitions of the two are required. Two perspectives shall be presented in this paper. The first perspective will favor euthanasia or the "right to die," the second perspective will favor antieuthanasia, or the "right to live". Each perspective shall endeavor to clarify the legal, moral and ethical ramifications or aspects of euthana
Evil From Morals By textbook definition, evil is "What is morally wrong, what hinders the realization of good" (Webster). If that is evil, then what is good? It\'s "what is morally excellent, virtuous, well behaved, dutiful." (Webster) Philosophers have argued over what evil is and why it exists for thousands of years. They have raised questions like ‘How can there be a God if there is evil?\' These questions were raised due to God\'s nature: he is said to be all-powerful, all- knowing and all-g
Existentialist View of Human Condition Two of the main principles of Existentialist Human Condition are: That man exists and then creates himself and what man chooses for himself he chooses for everyone else as well. Lets examine the first principle: man exists and then defines himself. What it means is that man is created on this earth and is nothing but a body, blood and guts. What he chooses to do and to be is what makes him a man. If a man comes into this world and chooses to steal, cheat, k