Buddhism For over 2000 years Buddhism has existed as an organized religion. By religion we mean that it has a concept of the profane, the sacred, and approaches to the sacred. It has been established in India, China, Japan and other eastern cultures for almost 2000 years and has gained a strong foothold in North America and Europe in the past few centuries. However, one might ask; what fate would Buddhism face had Siddartha Guatama been born in modern times; or more specifically in modern day No
Different Religions Since the dawn of man, people have had their own forms of religion. Be it simple ceremonial burial or complex blessing rituals, each person had their own way to explain the wonders of nature like, how did we come here and what our purpose here was. Another thing that each individual person had was their own morals. Morals are what define a civilization. Labels like peaceful or barbaric are put on different civilizations because of their morals. The morality of each civilizati
The Buddha\'s Four Noble Truths: A Logical Basis for Philosophy The Buddha Shakyamuni was born in the 6th century BCE in the area presently known as Nepal. During his 80 year lifetime, he systematically developed a pragmatic, empirically based philosophy which he claimed would lead its followers towards an enlightened existence. Buddhism is commonly called a religion; however, it differs from the usual definition of a religion in that it has no deities, does not promote worship of demigods, and
The Death and Dying Beliefs of Australian Aborigines Although the Aborigines are often classified as a primitive race whose religion is based upon animism and totemism like the American Indians, the Aboriginal funeral practices and beliefs about death have much in common with other cultures. This paper will discuss the death and dying beliefs of the Aborigines that share a common thread with many popular religions of today. Aboriginal beliefs in death and dying are original in that they combine
The Effect of the Russian Orthodox Religion on the Cult Orthodox Christianity has had an immense effect on the culture of Russia. The adoption of the Orthodox faith from Constantinople by Prince Vladimir in 988 introduced cultural influences that profoundly affected the Russian consciousness. As the people embraced Orthodoxy it developed a uniquely Russian flavor and rooted deep in the fertile Russian soul. Orthodoxy had a major impact on politics, art, and nearly every other aspect of Russia\'s
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John Theocentric Studies-Part I February 2, 1996 The four Gospels are neither histories of the life of Christ nor biographies. They are portraits of the person and work of the long promised Messiah, Israel\'s King and the world\'s Savior. As portraits they present four different poses of one unique personality. Matthew by the Holy Spirit presents Christ as King, Mark as Servant, Luke as Man, and John as God. Although featuring Christ as King, Matthew sketches His role as
The Lives of Confucius and Guatama Siddhartha Dariush Nazem World Civilization 121 September 19, 1996 Professor: Helju Bennett Section Teacher: Sara Abosch The Life Of Confucius Throughout the time span that man has lived on earth, there have been many religions in existence. Two very important and influencing religions that have been around for over two thousand years are Confucianism and Buddhism. The founders of these two religions, Confucius and Buddha, respectively, lived different lives an
The Trickster Karl Jung\'s explanation for the archetypes that surface in cultural and religious literature is that they are the product of what he calls the collective unconsciousness. That thread of consciousness that connects all human beings and cultures around the world. Yet it is not visible to the naked eye, one must look for the signs of it by researching cultures who are long gone and comparing them to each other and our own. Studying it reminds us that all humans are bound together by
A Brief History Of Buddhism Buddhism is one of the major religions of the world. It was founded by Siddhartha Guatama (Buddha) in Northeastern India. It arose as a monastic movement during a time of Brahman tradition. Buddhism rejected important views of Hinduism. It did not recognize the validity of the Vedic Scriptures, nor the sacrificial cult which arose from it. It also questioned the authority of the priesthood. Also, the Buddhist movement was open to people of all castes, denying that a p
Anglo-Saxon Belief In Fate And Christianity The Unity of the Unknown and the Eternal Security: The Anglo-Saxon Belief in Christianity and Fate Imagine a life in which one is simply a pawn at the hands of a mysterious higher force stumbling and meandering through life\'s tribulations. Until Pope Gregory the Great was sent to spread Christianity throughout England, the Anglo- Saxons believed solely in this passive, victimizing philosophy. These pagans still clung to much of their heathen culture a
confusion In the view of the Chinese common man, life on earth is but a temporary stop on his journey to death and other reincarnations. Since death is viewed as inexorable and inherent in the human condition, the Chinese accepts it with composure. It was a common custom in China, especially in rural areas, for people to have a coffin ready in their houses as a preparation for death that may come ten or twenty years in the future. Well-to-do people used to build their own tombs long before they
Hinduism The religion Hinduism refers a the civilization set up on the Indus river called the Hindus. Introduced in about 1830 by British writers, it is believed that the Indian civilization of approximately the last 2,000 years, which evolved from Vedism religion of the Indo- European people who settled in India in the last centuries of the 2nd millennium BC. “The Hindu religion ranges from a level of popular belief to one of Ritual’s, and philosophy. Hinduism is very broad, and has many Transi
Religious Beliefs Today\'s religious beliefs, governmental structures, laws and traditions of social behavior find their roots in the development of three main belief systems - Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Although other religious movements have developed throughout the years, these three belief systems have had the most impact on civilizations of the West. To better understand this impact, it is important to trace the development of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and review the relations
Scientology Scientology is a fairly new religion. Founded in the twentieth-century by a man by the name of L. Ron Hubbard. He began his studies long ago and wrote a book in 1950 called Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. He claimed that this book was one of the first tools used to solve the problems of the mind. This book focused on irrational mind, war, crime, and insanity. Mr. Hubbard designed this book so that anyone can use it to improve oneself. He did not stop at Dianetics, how
Smith and Marx A.Smith K.Marx -The role of individual- The task of political economy, Marx argued, was to understand all the presumptions within productive and social relations which made social life in a given form possible at a particular time.(Peterson,17). In some nations, as Hobbes states, the lives of the poor are nasty,brutish and short , by contrast in other nations , the poor do better within same levels of wealth. The aim of political economy is to understand the processes that produce
The History Of Buddhism Soon after Buddha\'s death or parinirvana, five hundred monks met at the first council at Rajagrha, under the leadership of Kashyapa. Upali recited the monastic code, Vinaya, as he remembered it. Ananda, Buddha\'s cousin, friend, and favorite disciple, and a man of prodigious memory, recited Buddha\'s lessons, the Sutras. The monks debated details and voted on final versions. These were then committed to memory by other monks, to be translated into the many languages of t
Carl Rogers Eventually I am going to briefly explain the important parts of these chapters because I need to take up some room and I am not quite sure about what to write. So here is a little description of what, like it or not, this paper is going to contain. I’ll start of with my thoughts and feelings about the structure and uniqueness of The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child, then get into the actual body of the book and talk about what I thought was interesting and what I think is stil
Freud and Marx Freud and Marx it can be argued were both, as individuals, dissatisfied with their societies. Marx more plainly than Freud, but Freud can also be seen as discontent in certain aspects such as his cynical view of human nature. Each were great thinkers and philosophers, but both seemed unhappy. Perhaps the social ills and trouble each perceived in the world about them were only the reflections of what each of the thinkers held within themselves. Each person observes the same world,
Mind And Machine Mind and Machine: The Essay Technology has traditionally evolved as the result of human needs. Invention, when prized and rewarded, will invariably rise-up to meet the free market demands of society. It is in this realm that Artificial Intelligence research and the resultant expert systems have been forged. Much of the material that relates to the field of Artificial Intelligence deals with human psychology and the nature of consciousness. Exhaustive debate on consciousness and
Plato Plato was a philosopher in the time of the distinguished Greek philosophers. He wrote a book entitled The Republic in which he explains some of his philosophy on subjects ranging from education to government. Plato constructed a model by which he proposed all governments evolve. He called it the Five Stages of Government. He suggested that there are five forms of government, which evolve out of one another; Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, Tyranny, and Aristocracy. A Timocracy is a governm
Psychology In Sports The mind-body connection is a very powerful one. For everything you think in your mind, your body has a reaction, regardless of whether it is real or imagined. For example, have you ever had a bad dream? Usually, you will wake up and your heart is racing, you are sweating and very agitated, even though all you were doing was sleeping. But, in your mind there was something bad going on and your body was reacting to it. Here’s another example: if you are home alone and you hea
Sports Violence Abstract This report will briefly examine violence in sports. It will give possible reasons for the increase in violence, why violence seems to be growing and what we can do to curb this disturbing tend. While not all theories can we examined here, the most relevant to the topic will be examined and discussed. Introduction The purpose of this report is to bring into light one of the most talked about problem in sports today, violence. Many people, spectators, coaches, players and
Subliminal Advertising Subliminal advertising: A collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services while being integrated below the threshold of perception or awareness. To sell products, merchants consciously use subliminal advertising as a basis for general consumerism. This seems like an unnecessary task, but when taken into consideration all the people, who have expressed their disbelief in its effectiveness, it is obvious to see how vi
Society\'s Restraint to Social Reform Of the many chatted words in the social reform vocabulary of Canadians today, the term workfare seems to stimulate much debate and emotion. Along with the notions of self-sufficiency, employability enhancement, and work disincentives, it is the concept of workfare that causes the most tension between it\'s government and business supporters and it\'s anti-poverty and social justice critics. In actuality, workfare is a contraction of the concept of "working f
Abolishing Poverty in The U.S John Boston Sociology 101 October 31, 1996 If I had the power to abolish poverty in the United States I would do it in a second. Abolishing poverty would be almost impossible because there are just to many poor people for one person to help to abolish poverty we must all work to help those who are poor get out of this condition. There are two types of poor, there are people who are relatively poor and there are people who are absolutely poor. People who are relative
Stephen Crane\'s "The Open Book": Cosmic Irony by: Sarah Clauer Stephen Crane\'s "The Open Boat," is thought to be one of the finest stories ever written by an American. Crane uses a theme of cosmic irony. Cosmic irony is the belief that the universe is so large and man is so small that the universe is indifferent to the plight of man. In "The Open Boat," Crane\'s theme, cosmic irony, is illustrated through the use of symbols for isolation, insignificance, and indifference. Three specific exampl
Academic Attitude During the course of a student\'s progression through academia, he must learn that the teacher cannot think for him. It is essential for a student to free his mind, allowing thought to flow. Instead of waiting for the answers to be handed to him on a silver platter, he will rise to his full potential, above to the meta level, and for himself, determine what the answer is. The student must also become active in his learning. Therefore taking his academic potential to the higher
The Accounts of Eros in the "Symposium" The word love carries with it many, many different interpretations. In modern day, our views on what is appropriate love is much different from the views from the time of Socrates and Plato. To them love was eros, a direct translation of the word love. However, the word itself wasn\'t the only thing that was different about love. In Plato\'s "Symposium", there is a celebration for Agathon. He had just won a dramatic contest in Athens, Greece two nights ago
A Civil Rebuttal Philosophy -- a:pursuit of wisdom. b:a search for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative rather than observational means. Through this most specific definition given to us respectively by Sir Webster\'s dictionary, I choose in my best interest to refrain to you just what the meaning of philosophy is. I implore you to try and comprehend this matter in what exactly this word brought abrupt to us is about. The word philosophy has two definitive definit
Plato vs. Aristotle Plato and Aristotle, two philosophers in the 4th century, hold polar views on politics and philosophy in general. This fact is very cleverly illustrated by Raphael\'s "School of Athens" (1510-11; Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican), where Plato is portrayed looking up to the higher forms; and Aristotle is pointing down because he supports the natural sciences. In a discussion of politics, the stand point of each philosopher becomes an essential factor. It is not coincidental tha
David Burn\'s Feeling Good: Depression In the book Feeling Good , David Burns, MD, the author, outlines certain cognitive techniques an individual suffering from depression could use in combating the disorder. He begins the book by briefly describing the pertinence and the prevalence of depression. The author captures the audience\'s attention in the first paragraph: " In fact depression is so widespread it is considered the common cold of psychiatric disturbances" (Burns, 1992) p. 9. Burns(1992
A Brief Comment on the Query: "Is Socrates Guilty As Charged?" In any case of law, when one is considering truth and justice, one must first look at the validity of the court and of the entity of authority itself. In Socrates case, the situation is no different. One may be said to be guilty or not of any said crime, but the true measure of guilt or innocence is only as valid as the court structure to which it is subject to. Therefore, in considering whether Socrates is \'guilty or not\', we must
Albert Camus Philosophy p. 5 October 29,1996 Born on November 7, 1913 in Mandoui, Algeria, Albert Camus earned a worldwide reputation as a novelist and essayist and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1957. Though his writings, and in some measure against his will, he became the leading moral voice of his generation during the 1950\'s. Camus died at the height of his fame, in an automobile accident near Sens, France on January 4, 1960. Camus\'s deepest philosophical interests were in Western p
All About Nothing: The Story of My Life Perhaps the most important thing that has happened in my life is the fact that nothing really big or important has ever happened in my life. For example, my parents are still happily married, and nobody really close to me has evr died. All of this is very unfortunate, I am sure, because if one of these things had happened I would have been able to find a topic for this very essay which I am writing very easily, and would not have had such a hard time getti
Amen: Does Prayer Play An Important Role In Our Lives Today? Does prayer play an important role in our lives today? The minority would say no and that prayer shouldn\'t ever have played an important role in our society. But, the simple fact of the matter is that for hundreds of years, prayer in school has been encouraged by both society and government. In recent years, it has been established that prayer in schools has led to a steady moral decline. Morals must be taught, in school and at home,
Analysis of Crito The question is raised within the dialogue between Socrates and Crito concerning civil disobedience. Crito has the desire, the means, and many compelling reasons with which he tries to convince the condemned to acquiesce in the plan to avoid his imminent death. Though Crito\'s temptation is imposing, it is in accord with reason and fidelity that Socrates chooses to fulfill his obligation to the state, even to death. Before addressing Crito\'s claims which exhort Socrates to lea
Analysis of the Human Cultural Identity This paper is intended to contain the analysis of the human cultural identity, as seen in the following five historical cultural periods: Enlightenment Culture; Greco-Roman Culture; Judeo-Christian Culture; Renaissance-Reformation Culture; and Industrialization-Modernism Culture. It also embodies examples of each era that are clearly stated, and how they relate to the cultural period. The cultural identity of the Enlightenment can be described as emphasizi
An Argument for the Legalization of Drugs, Based on John Stuart Mills\' "Revised Harm Principle" The question of whether or not to legalize certain drugs has been debated for decades. Although opponents have thus far been successful in preventing this, there are nonetheless a substantial number of people who believe that legalization should be given a chance. Their arguments range from the seeming ineffectiveness of current drug laws to the simple premise that the government has no right to proh
Mohandas Gandhi Leo Peters Section 567-01 Mid-Term Paper This Essay will be about the life and accomplishments of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. And will also discuss Civil Disobedience. Throughout history most national heroes have been warriors, but Gandhi ended British rule over his native India without striking a single blow. A frail man, he devoted his life to peace and brotherhood in order to achieve social and political progress. Yet less than six months after his nonviolent resistance to Bri
Anselm\'s Ontological Argument and the Philosophers Saint Anselm of Aosta, Bec, and Canterbury, perhaps during a moment of enlightenment or starvation-induced hallucination, succeeded in formulating an argument for God\'s existence which has been debated for almost a thousand years. It shows no sign of going away soon. It is an argument based solely on reason, distinguishing it from other arguments for the existence of God such as cosmological or teleological arguments. These latter arguments re
Antigone Antigone and Ismene are sisters.  They have two brothers who just killed each other and both died.  Creon, whos very powerful, honored one and dishonored the other.  The dishonored brother being left outside, unburied, and prohibited anyone to cry or sympathetic on the dead body.  Antigone who came from a loyal family could not stand to see her brother died unburied, so she asked her sister to go with her to steal and bury  the brother-body. Unwillingly, Ismene affrighted of the law and
A Philosophy For All: An Analysis of the Tao There is no single definition of Taoism in the Tao de Ching. The reader realizes that she will not find one in the text after seeing the first sentence. By saying that whatever can be described of the Tao is not the true Tao, its author, Lao-tzu, establishes his first premise: the Tao is a force beyond human explanation. However this assumption does not mean that he can\'t attempt to describe it. Using the literary tools of contradiction, parallel str
Aristotle (384 -322 BC) ARISTOTLE\'S LIFE Aristotle, Greek philosopher and scientist, is one of the most famous of ancient philosophers. He was born in Stagira, Greece to a physician to the royal court. When he became eighteen, Aristotle entered Plato\'s School in Athens and remained at this academy for twenty years, as a student and then as a teacher. He was recognized as the Academy\'s brightest and was given the title of "The Intelligence of the School". When Plato died in 347 BC, Aristotle l
Aristotle On Friendship Philosophical Ethics December 6, 1995 Friendship is undoubtedly one of the most important elements in the books of Aristotle\'s ethical principles. Aristotle takes the idea of friendship to a serious degree. He categorizes them into three groups or types of friendships. This report will attempt to define each type of friendship as well as identify the role of friendship in a society. Aristotle considers friendship to be a necessity to live. He claims that no individual wo
The Philosopher, Aristotle Joe Rinzel The ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle was an amazing individual who possessed a multitude of talents ranging from mastery of rhetoric to interest in physiology. Aristotle lived during the fourth century B.C. in ancient Greece. The culture of the Greeks during this time differs greatly from our present day life and times. Aristotle came into contact with many great men of history, from Plato his instructor and mentor to Alexander the Great, conquerer and r
Aristotle: A Comprehensive View on Nature and Society In order to fully understand Aristotle\'s views on a natural system, it is necessary to first explain some general principles of his philosophy. It is in his work the Categories that Aristotle presents the concept of substance, a concept which will serve as the foundation for much of his philosophical system. Substance, for Aristotle, is not a universal, but rather, it is the particular; substance is not a “such,” but a “this.” Thus, substanc
Argument About The Exist of God The following paper will provide a sound argument in favor of the existence of God. By demonstrating that an Atheist world cannot account for the preconditions of the laws of logic an Atheist cannot even account for a rational debate concerning the existence of God. “The impossibility of the contrary”, the best and only proof that the nesesary truth of the existence of God is his revelation of himself to us that makes it possible for us to use logic. This could be
The Controversial Issue of Doctor-Assisted Suicide Imagine youu have just found out you are going to die within three months. Recently the questions have been changed form, "What am I going to do with the rest of my life?" to "When should I kill myself"? With painful and crippling diseases such as AIDS and cancer, and Alzheimers along with doctors such as Dr. Kavorkian, some people are choosing death over life. Doctor assisted suicide has been a very controversial subject in the past few years.
Atomism: Democritus and Epicurus Philosophy 116 October 17, 1996 In the Atomists, we see pluralism taken as far as it could possibly go. We see Democritus and Epicurus divide all the world, as well as the universe, into two categories; atoms and empty space. Everything else is merely thought to exist. The atoms are eternal, infinite in size and number and they are moving through the empty space. There is no motion without empty space. Both Democritus and Epicurus agreed that motion was impossibl
Behind Closed Doors: The Correlation Between Multiple Personality Disorder and Child Abuse "Each day that we pretended, we replaced reality with lies, or dreams, or angry schemes, in search of dignity… until our lies got bigger than the truth, and we had no one real to be" From "For Children Who Were Broken" by Elia Wise Have you ever wanted to be someone else? Throughout history the idea of not being just us has intrigued everyone from Dr. Jekyll to Mr. Hyde. But imagine having no control over