Marie Curie: A Pioneering Physicist Aspirations come from hopes and dreams only a dedicated person can conjure up. They can range from passing the third grade to making the local high school football team. Marie Curie\'s aspirations, however, were much greater. Life in late 19th century Poland was rough. Being a female in those days wasn\'t a walk in the park either. Marie Curie is recognized in history by the name she took in her adopted country, France. Born in Poland in 1867, she was christen
Nuclear Legacy "There is 10 thousand tons of nuclear waste on Earth." Many scientist are in search for new and efficient ways to dispose of these lethal by-products which can destroy life itself. Radioactive products can be either beneficial or devastating. It all depends on how we use them. In the field of medicine, some benefit from radiation include, radiation therapy for cancer patients. Not all uses of radiation prove to be beneficial. Many use the power of the atom for destructive purposes
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle is considered both the founder of modern chemistry and the greatest English scientist to live during the first thirty years of the existence of the Royal Society. He was not only a chemist and a physicist as we know him to be, but also an avid theologian, a philanthropist, an essayist, and a beginner in medicine. Born in Lismore, Ireland to Richard Boyle, first earl of Cork, and Katherine Fenton, his second wife, Boyle was the youngest son in a family of fourteen. Howev
The Element: Chlorine General Information We researched the chemical element known as chlorine. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17 and an atomic weight of 35.453. It has a valence number of 3. The element has 3 energy levels. Chlorine exists as a greenish-yellow gas at normal temperatures and pressures. Chlorine is second in reactivity only to fluorine among the halogen elements. Chlorine is a nonmetal. It is estimated that 0.045% of the earth’s crust and 1.9% of sea water are chlorine. Chlorin
The History, Use, and Effectiveness of Medicinal Drugs I. The History, Use, and Effectiveness of Medicinal Drugs A. Introduction (Pg\'s 1-2) II. Aspirin (Pg\'s 3-6) A. Its Origin B. Dosages C. Relative Effectiveness D. Side Effects E. Alternate Treatment III. Sulfa Drugs (Pg\'s 7-10) A. Its Origin B. Dosages C. Relative Effectiveness D. Side Effects E. Alternate Treatment IV. Antibiotics (Pg\'s 11-14) A. Its Origin B. Dosages C. Relative Effectiveness D. Side Effects E. Alternate Treatment V. An
Aristotle vs. Copernicus Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist, who shared with Plato the distinction of being the most famous of ancient philosophers. Aristotle was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. At the age of 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato\'s Academy. He remained there for about 20 years, as a student and then as a teacher. When Plato died in 347 bc , Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias (d.
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a son of a minister in Switzerland. He was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance. He was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University of Basel. He was the oldest child and only surviving son of a Swiss Reform pastor. Two brothers died in infancy before Jung was born. Jung\'s mother was a neurotic and often fought with his father. Father was usually lonely and very irritable. When the child could not
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin was a British scientist who laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his views on life development through natural selection. He was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, on February 12, 1809. After graduating from the elite school at Shrewsbury in 1825, Darwin attended the University of Edinburgh where he studied medicine. In 1827 he dropped out and entered the University of Cambridge in preparation for becoming a clergyman of the Church of
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a recently recognized disease. It is caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks selected cells in the IMMUNE SYSTEM and produces defects in function. These defects may not be apparent for years. They lead, however, to a severe suppression of the immune system\'s ability to resist harmful organisms. This leaves the body open to invasion by various infections, which are therefor
Acupuncture As An Alternative Medicine In The Western Culture Debora Cytrynowicz Acupuncture as an Alternative Medicine ( in the Western Culture) Alternative medicine is a very general term whose definition can be very controversial. Basically, it is many holistic techniques for preventing and treating illnesses. Acupuncture, and many other therapies, have long been a part of Asian cultures and have recently been integrated into the Western culture. Since Acupuncture is such an important traditi
AIDS Michelle Lee Pelletier Sarah Smith December, 16, 1998 Mr. Marquis Honors Chemistry Aids A.I.D.S is an epidemic of the nineties. There are over one million people infected with the HIV in the United States, and over 250,000 cases of Aids. The World Health Organization estimates that there are between five and ten million infected with the H.I.V virus. This number is rising steadily. A.I.D.S is the end result of H.I.V, and to this day there is no cure. H.I.V was discovered in 1981, but not un
Alchemy Alchemy, ancient art practiced especially in the Middle Ages, devoted chiefly to discovering a substance that would transmute the more common metals into gold or silver and to finding a means of indefinitely prolonging human life. Although its purposes and techniques were dubious and often illusory, alchemy was in many ways the predecessor of modern science, especially the science of chemistry. The birthplace of alchemy was ancient Egypt, where, in Alexandria, it began to flourish in the
An End To Genetic Diseases The United States has a very diverse heritage. There is no American race. Americans are the blending of many cultures throughout many generations. With this blending of cultures comes a blending of genes. In the past, genes have not been well understood. They were not understood until Mendel did experiments on plants to find out why different plants of the same species had different characteristics. His goal was to find the key to unlock the mystery of inheritance (Cop
Another Tumours A tumour is a mass of new tissue growth that does not react to normal controls or the organizing influence of other tissues, and it has no useful function in the body. This applies to both types of tumours, malignant and benign. Malignant, also known as, cancerous tumours, are additionally defined by their invasion of local tissue and their ability to spread to other parts of the body. Benign Tumours A benign tumour which is not cancerous, is less serious than malignant tumours b
Biology Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialities may be oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. BOTANY is concerned with plant life, ZOOLOGY with animal life, algology with ALGAE, MYCOLOGY with fungi, MICROBIOLOGY with microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria, CYTOLOGY with CELLS, and so on. All biological specialties, however, are concerned with l
Biotechnology Biotechnology: Its application in agriculture Introduction: Persuade public to become aware of the changes Persuade audience to think about where they stand on this very important issue and take action according to your decision. Labeling and careful regulation of genetically manufactured foods v Persuade the American Public to think about the following changes that are being made in Agriculture as a society wish should discuss the issue. v Control genetic technology, Persuade publ
Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. Bipolar disorder or as the alternate names, manic depressive illness or affective bipolar disorder can be classified as a mood disorder characterized by mood swings from manis (exaggerated feeing of well-being) to depression. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It
Birth Control The practice of birth control prevents conception, thus limiting reproduction. The term birth control, coined by Margaret SANGER in 1914, usually refers specifically to methods of contraception, including STERILIZATION. The terms family planning and planned parenthood have a broader application. METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL Attempts to control fertility have been going on for thousands of years. References to preventing conception are found in the writings of priests, philosophers, and
Bone Diseases Bone diseases most directly influence the ability to walk or to move any part of the body--hands, limbs, neck, and spine. They are related to joint disorders--ARTHRITIS, COLLAGEN DISEASE, DISLOCATION of joints, and RHEUMATISM. The medical specialty pertaining to bone disorders is ORTHOPEDICS. Fractures are the most common bone disorders. They can occur as the result of an accident or be secondary to metabolic diseases. Fractures are life-threatening to aged people having the metabo
Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the school of analytical psychology. He proposed and developed the concepts of the extroverted and introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. The issues that he dealt with arose from his personal experiences. For many years Jung felt as if he had two separate personalities. One introverted while the other was extroverted. This interplay results in his study of integration and wholeness. His work h
Charles Darwin Darwin was born in February, 1809. He left the school at Shrewsbury to the University of Edinburgh to study medicine. In 1827 he dropped out of medical school and entered the University of Cambridge, intending to become a clergyman. There he met Adam Sedgwick, a geologist and John Stevens Henslow, a naturalist. Henslow not only helped build Darwin\'s self-confidence but also taught his student to be an observer of natural phenomena and collector of specimens. After graduating from
Diabetes Mellitus DIABETES MELLITUS In the United States, about 16 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus, although only half of these individuals are diagnosed. Every year, about 650,000 people learn they have the disease. Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of all deaths and the sixth leading cause of all deaths caused by disease. Diabetes is the most common in adults over 45 years of age; in people who are overweight or physically inactive; in individuals who have an immediat
Eating Disorders Imagine a thirteen-year-old girl who weighs 60 pounds because she is starving herself. Every time she looks in the mirror, she sees herself as fat. Picture her parents watching their daughter literally disintegrating into thin air. This is the life of a family dealing with an eating disorder. Eating disorders are a major problem with the young people of today\'s society. While anorexia and bulimia are sociological problems plaguing the world\'s youth, there are also other eating
Effects Of Altitude On Human Physiology The Effects Of Altitude On Human Physiology Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the body\'s abilit
Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is made up of six different types of waves. Radio waves, Microwaves, Infrared waves, Visible light, Ultraviolet light, X-rays and Gamma rays. The radio waves are used to transmit radio and television signals. The infrared waves are used to tell temperature of areas. Visible light is all the colors that we can see. Ultraviolet light can help things grow but to much can cause diseases such as skin cancer. X-rays are used as a tool to find broke
FAS On any given day in the United States... 10,657 babies are born. (US Census Bureau). Twenty of these babies are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Twenty may seem as though it is not a lot, but when you compare it to the fact that this number is more than HIV positive, Muscular Dystrophy, Spina Bifida and Down Syndrome combine it creates a whole new parameter. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a direct result of a woman’s competed disregard for the fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS, hereinafter), is
Gene Manipulation Throughout time, man has always questioned science. Man has been curious about life, space, our bodies, and our existence. Man has gone as far as to the moon, and cloning. Everyday there are new developments being researched. Along with these developments come the people’s opinion. Many people question the positive outcomes and negative outcomes of procedures such as gene manipulation, cloning, in vitro fertilization and fetal tissue implants. To this day, scientists are resear
Genetic Engineering, History And FutureAltering The Face Of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply aff
Hepatitis A Introduction: Hepatitis is caused by a virus that is targeted at the liver, one of your most important organs!! Specifically, it causes inflammation and injury to the liver. Hepatitis comes in many different forms, five to be exact. There is Hepatitis A, B, C, D E. Hepatitis is caused mainly by viruses, all of which are set on shutting down your liver. I will be specifically concentrating on Hepatitis A in this report. Hepatitis A is also known as infectious Hepatitis, an extremely c
Human Cloning Imagine it is the year 2008. As you pick up your daily issue of the New York Times, you begin to read some of the interesting articles on the front page. The top story of the paper reads, Germany Wins All Gold Medals at the Olympic Games: Is Cloning in Competitive Events Fair? Other interesting articles reported on the front page include: Rock Star Stacy Levesque and Lover’s Nuclear Transplanted Child is Born and Former President George Bush’s Cloned Heart Transplant A Success. The
Hypogravitational Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by an absolute decrease in the amount of bone present to a level below which it is capable of maintaining the structural integrity of the skeleton. To state the obvious, Human beings have evolved under Earth\'s gravity 1G . Our musculoskeleton system have developed to help us navigate in this gravitational field, endowed with ability to adapt as needed under various stress, strains and available energy requirement. The system
Irratable Bowl Syndrome Bo Moore E-Block Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (usually referred to as IBS) is a disorder of the large intestine that lasts for a long period of time. People who have IBS experience symptoms like constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms can occur one after another. A person can experience constipation at some times and diarrhea at other times. Occurrences of lower bowel irritation may also be accompanied by mild pain, swelling of the stomach and a lot
Lasers When most people see a laser beam they are amazed by its unique physical properties. Laser light is so unique from other light because it is coherent; unlike ordinary light, which travels in all directions, laser light travels in a straight beam. The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The history of the laser is very interesting. Lasers have changed immensely since they were first invented. Before the laser was invented, Charles Townes de
Malaria Malaria is regarded as one of the world\'s deadliest tropical parasitic diseases. It claims more lives than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. In Africa and other developing countries, it also accounts for millions of dollars in medical costs. Malaria, however, is a curable disease if promptly diagnosed and adequately treated. Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the parasite plasmodium. In recent years, most cases in the U.S. have been in people who have acquir
MArijuana Beatriz Lama Pérez Marjory Hutchinson ENG – 190 9 December 1999 Legalization of Marijuana For many years the use of marijuana for medical purposes has been an issue of controversial discussion. Many claim that marijuana is a drug that has proven itself to be of no medical value in the treatment of terminal illnesses. Those who feel this way, usually ignore the long history of marijuana’s medical uses; a history that goes back thousands of years ago. The drug has aided many people with
Pierre And Marie Curie Pierre and Marie Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium Introduction Marie and Pierre Curie\'s pioneer research was again brought to mind when on 20 April last year, their bodies were taken from their place of burial at Sceaux, just outside Paris, and in a solemn ceremony were laid to rest under the mighty dome of the Panthéon. Marie Curie thus became the first woman to be accorded this mark of honor on her own merit. One woman, Sophie Berthelot, admittedly already
Plant And Animal Cells I. Introduction All organisms in life are composed of at least one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of life. There are three main features of a cell. First, all organisms consist of one or more cells. Second, cells are the smallest units of life and third, cells arise only from preexisting cells. These three facts are referred to as the cell theory. All cells can be categorized into two basic cell types. They are prokaryotic and eukaryotic. To distinguish where cel
Science; Rainforests And Earth The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Ano
Steriods... Steroids, what they are why people use them Mohammed Ghatala SEC # 3 03-21-00 What are anabolic steroids? “Anabolic steroids are a group molecules that include the male sex hormone testosterone and synthetic analogs of testosterone” (Taylor,1991) Anabolic steroids are used by many people in sports today due to the rapid increase in muscle mass. Anabolic steroids are made synthetically and are very powerful. “Recent evidence suggests that there may be over 3,000,000 regular anabolic s
Steroids The Performance-Enhancing Supplement Controversy The use of performance-enhancing supplements among athletes should be banned from all athletic sports and competition, in that it provides an unfair advantage over other athletes trying to excel naturally. Performance-enhancing drugs are a controversial topic in today’s society, which are currently under debate. Performance-enhancing drugs are substances, which are used to stimulate certain areas of the body to make an athlete excel in a
THC THC (Cannabis) Between 1840 and 1900, European and American medical journals published more than 100 articles on the therapeutic use of the drug known then as Cannabis indica (or Indian hemp) and now as marijuana. It was recommended as an appetite stimulant, muscle relaxant, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant. As late as 1913 Sir William Osler recommended it as the most satisfactory remedy for migraine headaches . Today the 5000-year medical history of cannabis has been almost forgotten
THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The body attempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimal operating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from this homeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The body attempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect of increasing altitude on the body\'s ability to provide adequate oxygen to be utili
The Human Genome Project, What What would you do if you were given the power to change your genetic code from brown hair to blond?. Man has had this ability through natural selection for some time without knowing it, but in the near future scientist will be able to speed the process of natural selection by changing a persons genes. Scientists have identified what constitutes human DNA located in the nucleus of a cell. The Human Genome Project was established to identify the genes that make us wh
Theory Of Evolution By Natural And Sexual Selection Introduction It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwin’s time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution could not come up with a satisfactory mechanism that woul
Transgenic Rice Plants For centuries, rice has been one of the most important staple crops for the world and it now currently feeds more than two billion people, mostly living in developing countries. Rice is the major food source of Japan and China and it enjoys a long history of use in both cultures. In 1994, worldwide rice production peaked at 530 million metric tons. Yet, more than 200 million tons of rice are lost each year to biotic stresses such as disease and insect infestation. This ext
Electroconvulsive Therapy After researching electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), I have decided that if a close family member or even myself were severely depressed I would not support the use of ECT. Electroconvulsive therapy consists of an electrical shock, which is used to produce a seizure. Many people experience seizures due to some other type of illness or illnesses, and in these cases there is medicine taken in order to prevent these occurrences. In deciding my opinion on the topic of ECT I a
Tumours A tumour is a mass of new tissue growth that does not react to normal controls or the organizing influence of other tissues, and it has no useful function in the body. This applies to both types of tumours, malignant and benign. Malignant, also known as, cancerous tumours, are additionally defined by their invasion of local tissue and their ability to spread to other parts of the body. Benign Tumours A benign tumour which is not cancerous, is less serious than malignant tumours because t
Vegetarian (Health, Ethics And Environmetnal Effects) Must We Kill To Live? Today you\'ve arrived here with questions. After you read this maybe you\'ll have the answers? If not go to Http:// Whether you\'re already a vegetarian or if you\'re only curious about vegetarians I hope you find this informative and maybe influential. Ihope to open your minds enough that you\'ll agree that we don\'t have to kill to live . I hope to expose you to a lifestyle that d
What Doesnt kill them makes them stronger What Doesn’t Kill Them Makes Them Stronger Humans live in constant contact with not only plants and animals, but also with bacteria. Bacteria are everywhere: in water and soil and in the bodies of humans and other animals. The majority of bacteria don’t have the ability to cause disease, but that doesn’t mean that they are totally harmless. The problem arises when disease – causing bacteria interact, and are frequently in contact with the commensal, or h
Why Coral Reefs Need To Be Protected And Conserved For Future Generations Coral Reefs need to be preserved for many reasons. In this paper I will discuss a few of them. First of all, they houses a collection of diverse organisms, and contribute fisheries which provide food items such as fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. Furthermore, coral skeletons are being used as bone substitutes in reconstructive bone surgery and may be able to provide important medicine, including anti-cancer drugs and a com