The Problems of Faculty Governance Introduction This paper will present a brief history of the development of faculty governance in American universities during the twentieth century. I will review the types of governance structures that have emerged, examine the impact on the institutions in which they function, and discuss the problems that have arisen between the two. Since the middle ages when universities began to emerge faculty governance in institutions of higher education has been the fo
Good and Bad Rulers Introduction Throughout history, there have been many good and bad rulers, from the bravery of Alexander the Great, to the madness of George III. None, however, helped shape European feudalism like Charlemagne, King of the Franks, First of the Holy Roman Emperors. His advancements in government were not his only advancements though. He created an educational system for his people. While far behind the public and private educational systems of today, in the 8th and 9th century
Capital Punishment One of the most controversial issues in the rights of juveniles today is addressed in the question, "Should the death penalty be applied to juveniles"? For nearly a century the juvenile courts have existed to shield the majority of juvenile offenders from the full weight of criminal law and to protect their entitled "special rights and immunities." In the case of kent vs. United states in 1996, Justice Fortas stated some of these "special rights" which include; Protection from
Spanish settlement of the west History International borders have always been centers of conflict, and the U.S.-Mexican border is no exception. With the European colonizing the New World, it was a matter of time before the powers collided. The Spanish settled what is today Mexico, while the English settled what is to day the United States. When the two colonial powers did meet what is today the United States’ Southwest, it was not England and Spain. Rather the two powers were the United States a
Napoleon Bonaparte nuh-poh\'-lee-uhn} Napoleon I, known as Napoleon Bonaparte before he became emperor, was probably the most brilliant military figure in history. Rising to command of the French Revolutionary armies, he seized political power as first consul in 1799 and proclaimed himself emperor in 1804. By repeated victories over various European coalitions, he extended French rule over much of Europe. He was finally defeated in 1814-15. Early Life Napoleon was born on Aug. 15, 1769, to Carlo
The Golden Rule The definition of the Golden Rule is that those with the gold make the rules. In other words, those with the gold have the power as well as those with the power have the gold. History books will discuss the general reasons for war such as freedom from adversity or freedom from religion. But the real issue for any war is the thirst for power and control; and the means to finance them are the economic issues. Nations will endure years of fighting for power and control. France and E
Adolf Hitler At half past six on the evening of April 20th, 1889 a child was born in the small town of Branau, Austria. The name of the child was Adolf Hitler. He was the son a Customs official Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. As a young boy Adolf attenuated church regularly and sang in the local choir. One day he carved a symbol into the bench which resembled the Swastika he later used as the symbol of the Nazi party. He was a pretty good student. He received good grades in most of his c
The First Crusade In The middle of the Eleventh Century The tranquillity of the eastern Mediterranean seemed assured for many years to come, but little did the people know what was ahead . This, thus embark us on a journey back into the First Crusade. In this paper I will be discussing the events that lead up to the first in a long line of crusades. I will also be mentioning the lives of some of the crusaders through letters that they wrote. The crusades were a time of confusion for most people,
BOOK REVIEW: The Magic Lantern, Timothy Garton Ash The Magic Lantern, Timothy Garton Ash’s personal account of the revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe, is a detailed book written from the inside of the revolutions. Ash writes of the political transformation that takes place in Warsaw, Poland; Budapest, Hungary; Berlin, Germany; and Prague, Czechoslovakia. Ash gives great details of these events, and in some cases he own involvement in the revolutions. This book would be highly recommended to s
Plato and Aristotle Rijo Ninan December 4, 1998 Ms. Purcell-Murphy European History Page 1 Two of the greatest philosophers of all time are Plato and Aristotle. They both had their own views on different subjects. One area where they had contrasting views was politics. Plato lived from 427 to 347 B.C. and was Athenian. He started a school called the Academy where he taught his philosophy to other people. He wrote two great books, The Symposium which was a book about love and The Republic which w
Belgium “The Workshop of Europe” One of the many fascinating countries in Europe is Belgium. In northwestern Europe lies this country. It is small in size, but there are many people who live in Belgium which makes it one of the most densely populated European counties. It plays an important part in world affairs as NATO is located in its capital of Brussels. Many manufactured goods are produced here, as it is nicknamed the Workshop of Europe. North to south measures about 100 miles and about hal
The Confederate South The Confederate South, which is known for its deep military history, proved to be no competition for an industrially sound and hastily growing north in this Civil War. The North that was industrially strong and armed to the teeth found much of their victories quite easily obtainable. Strategy, moral, leadership, and economy are just a few factors that contributed to the Union’s dominance over the confederate succeeded states. The Union won the civil war by economic fortitud
The Treaty of Versailles In the peace settlement Germany was forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. This was a totally justifiable demand on the part of the victorious powers. The Treaty of Versailles was enacted into history in June 1919 with Germany forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. Since then there has been considerable debate concerning the war but even today historians still cannot fully agree upon the causes. Some support has been given to
The Renaissance Period Italy began to flourish in the 15th century and began to become a rich state. Italian cities grew in population and wealth structuring a new order and class in Italy. Humanism, exploration and trade caused medieval Europe to transform into the modern world. As the Italian cities began to grow, idealist\'s concepts became more open to society. These idealists would begin the birth of humanism. Literature was becoming more open allowing people like Francesco Petrarch, the "f
The effects of the P-51 Mustang in World War II P-51 Mustang w/ WWII The Effect of the North American P-51 Mustang On the Air War in Europe by David Buckingham [email protected] IBH 20th Century History Mr. Peloquin George Mason High School Falls Church, Virginia March 27, 1995 [Unfortunately, we don\'t have a digitized image of this photo.] [Photo caption] Harry R. Ankeny, Jr., the author\'s grandfather, with his P-51, "Betsy," (named for the author\'s grandmother) at the end of his combat tour
The United States of America The United States of America is usually referred to as the United States or America. It is a federal republic on the continent of North America, which has 50 states. The U.S. includes Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the Virgin Islands as territories. America is bordered by Canada, the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, and the Pacific Ocean. In America the basic unit of currency is the United States dollar. The U.S. decimal currency consists of paper
Is It Your Right to Die? Final Draft Jonathon Freeman-Anderson English: Period 4 February 1, 1999 Euthanasia or Physician Assisted Suicide is a strongly debated subject. Euthanasia delves into moral, ethical, and personal issues, which is where most opposition comes into effect. Many of the people who oppose the “right to die” issue are the same people who oppose the death penalty and abortion issues. All these issues are life or death oriented. What makes the “right to die” issue stand out from
Menschenschreck "If the international financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevizing of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe." - Adolf Hitler- Jan 30, 1939 When the Nazi party came to power in January of 1933, it almost immediately began to take hostile measures toward the Jewish people. The government passed special legislation that excluded Je
The Sudetenland History On January 30, 1933, the Nazis acquired mastery of Germany when Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor. That evening Hitler stood triumphantly in the window of the Reich Chancellery waving to thousands of storm troopers who staged parades throughout the streets of Berlin. The Nazis proclaimed that their Third Reich would be the greatest civilization in history and would last for thousands of years. But the meteoric rise of Hitler and national socialism was followed by an a
Rise of the Superpowers (USA & USSR) from events prior to and during WWII World War II: the process of superpowerdom It is often wondered how the superpowers achieved their position of dominance. It seems that the maturing of the two superpowers, Russia and the United States, can be traced to World War II. To be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense international political power and, related to this, a strong national ideology. It was this war,
Veering Point What were the causes and effects of World War I? The answer to this seemingly simple question is not elementary. There was more to the onset of the war then the event of an Austrian prince being murdered in Serbia, as is what most people consider to be the cause of World War I. Furthermore, the effects of the war were not just concentrated to a post-war era lasting for a generation of Westerners. No, the effects of the war were widespread throughout the world and can be traced to g
THE BAY OF PIGS INVASION The story of the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs is one of mismanagement, overconfidence and lack of security. The blame for the failure of the operation falls directly in the lap of the Central Intelligence Agency, a young president and his advisors. The fall out from the invasion caused a rise in tension between the two great superpowers. Ironically thirty-four years after the event, the person that the invasion meant to topple, Fidel Castro, is still in pow
The Aboriginal Land Rights Movement Introduction No doubt one of the most difficult, complex and controversial legal issues of the last century has been the return of traditional lands to the indigenous people of colonial nations. The modern Western governments can’t be expected to return entire continents to the descendents of the traditional owners, but certainly it is important that some compensation be made for the theft of land during colonisation. Australian Aboriginal land legislation has
Unemployment Unemployment has been a problem throughout the United States since the beginning of our economic structure. In the most obvious sense, unemployment means "being without a job." The term unemployment is one description of the economic condition of a society at any given time. Low unemployment means the majority of the labor force is involved in, or looking for steady work. On the other hand, high unemployment is an indication of an economy in recession, or even worse. This implies th
Greek Mythology and Religion Mythology is the study and interpretation of myth and the body of myths of a particular culture. Myth is a complex cultural phenomenon that can be approached from a number of viewpoints. In general, myth is a narrative that describes and portrays in symbolic language the origin of the basic elements and assumptions of a culture. Mythic narrative relates, for example, how the world began, how humans and animals were created, and how certain customs, gestures, or forms
Jimi Hendrix Jimi Hendrix, the greatest guitarist in rock history, revolutionized the sound of rock. In 1967, the Jimi Hendrix Experience rocked the nation with their first album, Are You Experienced?. Hendrix\'s life was cut short by the tragedy of drugs in 1970, when he was only twenty seven years old. In these three years the sound of rock changed greatly, and Hendrix\'s guitar playing was a major influence. Jimi was born in Seattle, Washington on November 27, 1942. As a young boy, whenever t
Sports People all over the world, of all body styles, sizes, races and backgrounds occupy their time and gain physical fitness through games and activities referred to as sports. From professional leagues around the world, school sports, and neighborhood games, fun and strategy come together to form a worldwide phenomenon that has come to be loved. Whether your watching them or participating in them, sports have touched a part of everyone\'s lives. Since the development of the People\'s Republic
Marcel Duchamp Marcel Duchamp is considered as one of the most influential artists of the 20th Century by the modern art world. Duchamp, who participated in artistic movements from Fauvism to Surrealism, was an innovator and a revolutionary within the art world. Duchamp, being a founding force in the Dada movement, was also a main influencing factor of the development of the 20th Century avant-garde art. All in all Duchamp has become a legend within the art world. Marcel Duchamp was born on July
French Revolution Causes and Effects Often in society whenever some particular groups of people acquire too much power or wealth, it will create a class struggle. This usually results in a chain of events that will cause society to change its practices. Whether it is the American Revolution, the Civil Rights movement of the 60\'s and 70\'s, or in the case of the French Revolution, people were willing to lose their lives, just so they could have equal and unbiased treatment. It is almost as if th
Ukraine LAND Ukraine\'s size is about 233,000 sq. miles. It is located to the north of the Black Sea. It is bordered by Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. Most of the land is flat. The only uplands are the Carpathian Mountains, located in the southwest part of the country, and the Crimean Mountains, located along the southern coast. The climate of Ukraine is temperate and subtropical. PEOPLE Ukraine has a population of about 52 million people. This represents 18% of the population of
The Olympic Games The Olympic Games, an international sports competition, are held once every four years at a different site, where athletes from different nations compete against each other in a wide variety of sports. There are two classifications of Olympics, the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. Through 1992 they were held in the same year, but beginning in 1994 they were rescheduled so that they are held in alternate even-numbered years. For example, the Winter Olympics were held in
Japan the Aggressor "Nothing was left of the Hiroshima of a few minutes ago. The houses and buildings had been destroyed and the streets transformed into a black desert, with only the flames from burning buildings giving a lurid illumination to the dark sky over Hiroshima." Those are the ever haunting words of a young boy who survived the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. How did the war get this far that innocent people were slaughtered. What led up to the attack of the Japanese of Pearl Harbor. How
Theodore Roosevelt History Term Paper History, to me, is all of the events that make a person, or a society, who they are. There is an infinite amount that can be learned from other people’s mistakes, victories, and defeats. History affects every person. Much can be taken from the decisions of great leaders. From 1895-1970, America had some of history’s greatest leaders. Theodore Roosevelt ruled the United States from 1901-1909. He made many important decisions that shaped America then, and even
NEW ATLANTIS WE sailed from Peru, where we had continued by the space of one whole year, for China and Japan, by the South Sea, taking with us victuals for twelve months; and had good winds from the east, though soft and weak, for five months\' space and more. But then the wind came about, and settled in the west for many days, so as we could make little or no way, and were sometimes in purpose to turn back. But then again there arose strong and great winds from the south, with a point east; whi
World War I In the peace settlement Germany was forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. This was a totally justifiable demand on the part of the victorious powers. The Treaty of Versailles was enacted into history in June 1919 with Germany forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. Since then there has been considerable debate concerning the war but even today historians still cannot fully agree upon the causes. Some support has been given to the theory t
The Debate Over Multicultural Education in America America has long been called "The Melting Pot" due to the fact that it is made up of a varied mix of races, cultures, and ethnicities. As more and more immigrants come to America searching for a better life, the population naturally becomes more diverse. This has, in turn, spun a great debate over multiculturalism. Some of the issues under fire are who is benefiting from the education, and how to present the material in a way so as to offend the
New Zealand New Zealand first appeared about 140 million years ago, during the Mesozoic Era. This landmass gradually eroded until about 80 million years ago, when sea floor spreading started and the Tasmanian sea formed. However, it wasn\'t until 10,000 years ago when the land formed the shape, as we now know it. The oldest rocks in New Zealand are approximately six-hundred and eighty million years old. These rocks were found on the west coast of the South Island. Although, at one point in its h
Human Cloning Thesis Statement: Cloning has been in practice throughout the world and is slowly reaching extraordinary feats; in addition people have reason for cloning whether it be medical or not; cloning has also opened a morality and religious up roar that has governments concerned; finally, it has left open ended issues as who will benefit and if criminals can clone? I. Recent developments A. 1979 cloning B. 1996 cloning II. Medical A. Bone marrow B. Organ transplants III. Longer life A. Sp
Cuba To understand how Cuba arrived at the point it is at today, it is important to know the history of the island. When Columbus arrived in Cuba in 1492, there were three major native cultures on the island. As a result of the Spanish presence, these native groups quickly disappeared. New diseases brought by the Spanish, combined with their less than kind treatment, quickly reduced the population of natives (Suchliki 13-20). Spain began significant colonization of Cuba in 1508. Fatefully, colon
The Ford Mustang The U.S. is a land of people on the move. When the Mustang was introduced it was an instant sucess. The Mustang appealed to a wide variety of people. Sports car lovers liked the sporty look, young drivers liked the "four-on-the-floor" and bucket seat options, and women liked the interior and the convertible. This car had a wide range of options for just about everyone. And finally, the Mustang came with and affordable price. The Mustang was presented to the public on April 17, 1
Revolutions History\'s revolutions have taken on a distinct shape. Crane Brinton points out this particular pattern inherent to national revolutions in his book Anatomy of a Revolution. Brinton uses a wheel to describe the common cycle that most revolutions share. Brinton claims that the starting block of most revolutions is the societal problems brought forth by the "Old Regime". Brinton continues his cycle with the isolated and spontaneous events of dissatisfaction that mark the overthrow of t
Interest Groups Since the beginning, the American government has been trying to make itself better. From racial equality, to helmet laws, reforms are always being introduced to law. Just recently major reform has been going on in the democracy we live in. For reform that is big it takes support and help from many people, especially the interest groups and lobbyists. Major reform has been taking place in the health care industry and has to do with the president Clinton’s health care reform and th
Networks PROXY SERVER A process providing a cache (A small fast memory holding recently accessed data, designed to speed up subsequent access to the same data. Most often applied to processor-memory access but also used for a local copy of data accessible over a network etc.) of items available on other servers (a program which provides some service to other client programs) which are presumably slower or more expensive to access. This term is used particularly for a World-Wide Web server (An In
World War I World War I was a military conflict from 1914 to 1918; that caused millions of people their lives in battle. Causes of World War I were the spirt of intense nationalism. The fundamental causes of the conflict, however, were rooted deeply in the European History of the previous century in political and economic policies that prevailed the Continent after 1871, the year that marked the emergence of Germany as a great world power. Another source of tension in Europe was imperialism. At
HITLER At half past six on the evening of April 20th, 1889 a child was born in the small town of Branau, Austria. The name of the child was Adolf Hitler. He was the son a Customs official Alois Hitler, and his third wife Klara. As a young boy Adolf attended church regularly and sang in the local choir. One day he carved a symbol into the bench which resembled the Swastika he later used as the symbol of the Nazi party. He was a pretty good student. He received good marks in most of his classes. H
NATO INTRODUCTION Since the end of the Cold War, United States foreign policy has been affected more than in any other period in its history. With the fall of the Soviet Union and the break up of the Eastern European communist block the United States has been forced to reevaluate the way that it looks at that region of the world. Before 1949 Europe was a continent that saw more unrest and bloodshed in one century than in any other time in modern history. The twentieth century in Europe was marke
Greek Drama The history of European theater begins with the Greeks, whose annual festivals in honor of the god Dionysus included competitions in tragic and comical plays. According to tradition, the first of these dramatic forms evolved from choral songs concerning the death and resurrection of Dionysus. This occurred about the middle of the 6th century BC, when Thespis of Icaria, in a drama of his own composition, impersonated a character and engaged the chorus in dialogue, thereby becoming bot
The Crusades The Crusades were a religious, military, and economic movement that occurred between the 11th and the 14th century. The main cause of the Crusades was the difference in ideas between the two faiths, Christianity and Islam. Both the Western European and Byzantine Christians were concerned that the Muslims occupied the "Christian Territory" of Palestine and Syria, including Jerusalem, which was the birth place of Christ. The Muslims, who believed in Allah as their one true god were co
Art: Vincent Van Gogh\'s Paintings Throughout Vincent William van Gogh\'s artistic career, he was mocked and rejected by intellectuals. An intellectual is defined as "a person who is well informed and intelligent, and interested in activities involving the intellect" (World 1,096). By this definition, we can therefore assume that critics of art, would be intellectuals. The viewpoint critics had of his work then as opposed to the viewpoint they have now is rather ironic. Over the last century, Va