:Damn Near Everything There Is To Know About Cells: Biology Cell Report There are many parts of a cell, they all have specific duties, and are all needed to continue the life of the cell. Some cells exist as single-celled organisms that perform all of the organism\'s metabolism within a single cell. Such single-celled organisms are called unicellular. Other organisms are made up of many cells, with their cells specialized to perform distinct metabolic functions. One cell within an organism may be
History of the Cell Theory Ryan Strehlein Cells, the make-up of all living things. Some cell are complete organisms, such as unicellular bacteria and protozoa. Other types of cells are called multicellular, such as nerve cells and muscle cells. Withen the cell is genetic material, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) containing coded instructions for the behavior and reproduction of the cell. The cell was first discovered by the 1665 English scientist Robert Hooke, who studied the dead cells of cork with
Charles Darwin Chad Galloway More than a century after his death, and four generations after the publication of his chief work, "The Origin of Species", Charles Darwin may still be considered the most controversial scientist in the world. His name is synonymous with the debate that continues to swirl around the theory of evolution, a theory that deeply shook the Western view of humanity and its place in the world. We tend to speak simply of the theory of evolution, leaving off the explanatory ph
Clinical Chemistry Tests In Medicine Of the diagnostic methods available to veterinarians, the clinical chemistry test has developed into a valuable aid for localizing pathologic conditions. This test is actually a collection of specially selected individual tests. With just a small amount of whole blood or serum, many body systems can be analyzed. Some of the more common screenings give information about the function of the kidneys, liver, and pancreas and about muscle and bone disease. There a
Cloning of Animals On Sunday, February 23, 1997, Scottish researchers broke one of nature\'s greatest laws by cloning a lamb from a single cell of an adult ewe. This breakthrough opens the door to the possibility for the cloning of other mammals including humans. This remarkable achievement is being looked at as a great advancement in animal agriculture. But this achievement could lead to ethical questions of standard. Researchers lead by Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotlan
Cloning Today A clone is a group of organisms that are genetically identical. Most clones result from asexual reproduction, a process in which a new organism develops from only one parent. The one process of cloning, called nuclear transfer, replaces the nucleus of an immature egg with a nucleus from another cell. Most of the work with clones is done from cultures. An embryo has about thirty or forty usable cells but a culture features an almost endless supply. When the nucleus has been inserted
Current Status of Malaria Vaccinology In order to assess the current status of malaria vaccinology one must first take an overview of the whole of the whole disease. One must understand the disease and its enormity on a global basis. Malaria is a protozoan disease of which over 150 million cases are reported per annum. In tropical Africa alone more than 1 million children under the age of fourteen die each year from Malaria. From these figures it is easy to see that eradication of this disease i
Differences and Effects of Natural and Synthetic Fertilizers At the core of the growth and germination of plants lie the nutrients they receive from the soil. The nutrients required for growth are classified into two groupings, macronutirents and micronutrients. Macronutrients are those that are needed in very large amounts, and whose absence can do a great harm to the development of the plant life. These nutrients include calcium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and are very sparse in most
Diverrsity of Plants Plants evolved more than 430 million years ago from multicellular green algae. By 300 million years ago, trees had evolved and formed forests, within which the diversification of vertebrates, insects, and fungi occurred. Roughly 266,000 species of plants are now living. The two major groups of plants are the bryophytes and the vascular plants; the latter group consists of nine divisions that have living members. Bryophytes and ferns require free water so that sperm can swim
DNA After staying on the plant Earth reaching the human genetic technology, I have come up with this report the four things I am going to talk about in this report are: 1) What is the chemical basis of the plant Earth 2) What do human mean by "genetic technology" and how is it possible 3) How have human used this technology 4) Are humans concerned about this technology 1)The chemical basis of the plant earth is deoxyribonucleic acid (generally shortened to DNA), it has the shape of a long twiste
Dolphins Dolphins are mammals closely related to whales and porpoises. Dolphins have a powerful and streamlined body. They are found in all seas and oceans. Dolphins can be told apart from porpoises by their nose, which is beaklike, and also their conical teeth. Porpoises have a flatter nose, sharper teeth, and a more solid body. There are 32 known species of dolphins. The bottle-nosed dolphin is often the species used in aquatic shows. The common dolphin inspired many Mediterranean folk lores.
Ebola March 1, 1996 Imagine going on vacation to a foreign country and when you come home you are horribly sick. Your head hurts, you have a highfever, and you start vomiting. Chances are that you may havecontracted the Ebola virus. Ebola was first discovered in the village of Yambuku(1) nearthe Ebola River in Zaire. Since its discovery, there have beenfour outbreaks of this disease. There are three known strains, ofvariations of ebola. There is no known cure for this disease(2).Ebola has become
Salt Pollution As awareness for pollution increases, other forms of pollution are defined. Almost everyone knows about toxic waste and carbon dioxide pollution, but not many people have heard of salt pollution. Salt pollution has been on the increase since the evolution of the automobile. With more pressure on government agencies to keep the highway clear and safe, an increase in the use of salt has developed. It is important to understand why salt is used and how it work as well as the environm
The Effects of Foreign Species Introduction On An Ecosystem The effects of foreign species introduction into an ecosystem are very profound. From small microorganisms to species of large mammals, many foreign species introductions occur every day. New implications of their introduction are found just as often. When a foreign species is introduced into an ecosystem, often the ecosystem contains no natural predators for the new species. This lack of predators sometimes leads to; in conjunction wit
Evolution From A Molecular Perspective Introduction: Why globular evolution? Evolution has been a heavily debated issue since Charles Darwin first documented the theory in 1859. However, until just recently, adaptation at a molecular level has been overlooked except by the scientific world. Now with the help of modern technology, the protein sequences of nearly every known living thing have either been established or are in the process of establishment, and are widely accessible via the internet
Evolution of Immunity and the Invertebrates "Article Summery" Name: "Immunity and the Invertebrates" Periodical: Scientific American Nov, 1996 Author: Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht Pages: 60 - 71 Total Pages Read: 9 The complex immune systems of humans and other mammals evolved over quite a long time - in some rather surprising ways. In 1982 a Russian zoologist named Elie Metchnikoff noticed a unique property of starfish larva. When he inserted a foreign object through it\'s membrane, tiny ce
Chlorophyll A. Chlorophyll belongs to the Plant Kingdom. Chlorophyll is not found in the Animal Kingdom. Chlorophyll is found inside of Chloroplasts, and Chloroplasts are found inside of plant cells. B. Chlorophyll is a pigment that makes plants green. It is important because it converts sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. C. Chlorophyll is found inside the chloroplast which is located near the cell wall. It is located here because the suns rays might not penetrate deep into the pl
Earthquakes Earthquakes have plagued our lives for as long as people have inhabited the earth. These dangerous acts of the earth have been the cause of many deaths in the past century. So what can be done about these violent eruptions that take place nearly with out warning? Predicting an earthquake until now has almost been technologically impossible. With improvements in technology, lives have been saved and many more will. All that remains is to research what takes place before, during, and a
Fire Ants Fire ants have been in the United States for over sixty years, and almost every American that lives in or frequently visits the quarantined states which they inhabit has had an unpleasant run in with these troublesome critters. Inhabitants of the Southeast who have ever stood unwittingly atop a fire ant mound know that the insects are aptly named. When the ants sting it creates a sensation similar to scorching caused by a hot needle touching the skin momentarily (1. Tschinkel 474). Fir
Nuclear Energy During the twentieth century scientists have discovered how to unleash the most powerful energy of all; Nuclear energy. The study of nuclear energy began for the same reasons that most scientific studies are begun; to understand more about the universe and the laws by which the universe works. The more knowledge we have about the universe, the more we can control the world in which we live. Nuclear energy is contained in the center, or nucleus of an atom. This energy is also known
Wind Chimes Wind chimes produce clear, pure tones when struck by a mallet or suspended clapper. A wind chime usually consists of a set of individual alloy rods, tuned by length to a series of intervals considered pleasant. These are suspended from a devised frame in such a way that a centrally suspended clapper can reach and impact all the rods. When the wind blows, the clapper is set in motion and randomly strikes one or more of the suspended rods-- causing the rod to vibrate and emit a tone. T
Reversing The Aging Process, Should We? In the length of time measured as human lifetime one can expect to see a full range of differing events. It is assumed that during a lifetime a person will experience every possible different emotion. If one is particularly lucky, he will bear witness to, or affect some momentous change in humanity. However is it reasonable to ask what would be experienced by someone who lived two lifetimes? Up until recently the previous question would and could only be r
Thoeries of Evolution Evolution is the process by which living organisms originated on earth and have changed their forms to adapt to the changing environment. The earliest known fossil organisms are the single-celled forms resembling modern bacteria; they date from about 3.4 billion years ago. Evolution has resulted in successive radiations of new types of organisms, many of which have become extinct, but some of which have developed into the present fauna and flora of the world (Wilson 17). Ev
Fungi: The Great Decomposers Although fungi are over looked in the commerical asspect of the world, they play a great rool in the web of life. In the fungi kingdom there are over 175,00 diffrent species. The main object of fungi is to decompose nutrients of plants and animals. History the history of fungi is not very clear because scientists have never realy wnt in great deepth , because fungi are not needed commericaly. the ancestors of fungi lived in shallow bodies of water about 600-800 milli
Genetic Diversity In Agriculture Genetic variation is the raw material for the plant breeder, who must often select from primitive and wild plants, including wild species, in search of new genes. The appearance of new diseases, new pests, or new virulent forms of disease causing organisms makes it imperative that the plant be preserved, because it offers a potential for the presence of disease resistant genes not present in cultivated varieties. Also, there are demands for new characters-- for e
Genetic Engineering Bioengineering, or genetic engineering is an altering of genes in a particular species for a particular outcome. It involves taking genes from their normal location in one organism and either transferring them elsewhere or putting them back into the original organism in different combinations. Most biomolecules exist in low concentrations and as complex, mixed populations which it is not possible to work efficiently. This problem was solved in 1970 using a bug, Escherichia co
Transitions of Reptiles to Mammals A long long time ago, in a galaxy not too far away, was a little blue planet called Earth, and on this world not a single mammal lived. However a lot of time has past since then and we now have lots of furry creatures that are collectively called mammals. How did they get their? Where did they come from? These are the kinds of questions that led me to my subject of choice. I will endeavor to provide examples, using specific transitional fossils, to show that ma
Glossary and Definitions Distribution: Drug distribution is the process by which a drug reversibly leaves the blood stream and enters the interstitium (extracellular fluid) and/or the cells of the tissues. The delivery of a drug from the plasma to the interstitium primarily depends on blood flow, capillary permeability, the degree of binding of the drug to plasma and tissue proteins, and the relative hydrophobicity of the drug. Excipient: Vehicle. A more or less inert substance added in a prescr
ANIMALIA VERTEBRATA MAMMALIA CARNIVORA CANIDAE CANIS LUPUS AND ANIMALIA VERTEBRATA MAMMALIA CARNIVORA CANIDAE CANIS NIGER Introduction: Any person who has been able to catch a glimpse of any type of wolf is indeed a lucky man. The wolf is one of the earth\'s most cowardly and fearful animals, and it is so sly and, pardon the expression, foxy, that it is almost a waste of time to try and catch him in any kind of trap. Although he can be cowardly and fearful, he can also be one the most vicious an
How Nutrients Get in, and Wastes Out. By Faisal Premji Science 10 Assignment -- Part B In a human being, nutrients are necessary for survival. But how are these nutrients obtained? This report will go into depth on how the food we eat gets into our cells, and how the waste products that we produce get out of the body. Also, the unicellular organism Paramecium will be compared with a human being, in terms of all of the above factors. Dietary Nutrients The chief nutrients in a diet are classified
Ibuprofen Abstract The project that I chose to research was the effect of Ibuprofen on the heart rate of the daphnia. The reason that I chose to do this was because many people in society use over the counter pain killers without really understanding any of the long term effects of this medicine other than clearing their aches pains, and swelling. One of the leading drugs on the market today is Ibuprofen which you may know as Motrin or Advil. Both drugs are identical except for quantity and pric
Insects Insects are neumerout invertebrate animals that belong in the Phylum Arthropoda and Class Insecta. The class Insecta is divided into 2 subclasses: Apterygota, or wingless insects, and Pterygota, or winged insects. Subclass Pterygota is futher divided on basis of metamorphosis. Insects that have undergone incomplete metamorphosis are the Exopterygota. Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis are the Endopterygota. Insects have an outer bilateral exoskeleton to which the muscles are att
Cryogenics: Is It Worth Waiting For Imagine being frozen in time to escape a deadly illness, then getting warmed when a cure is found. There is question on whether cryogenic methods should be used. To fully understand cryogenics a knowledge of cold, background information on some branches of cryogenics, some problems with cryopresevation, and different peoples views towards cryogenics is needed. "Cold is usually considered hostile to mankind. Most people hate cold and with reasons." If not caref
Leukemia Leukemia is a disease characterized by the formation of abnormal numbers of white blood cells, for which no certain cure has been found. Leukemia is also conditions characterized by the transformation of normal blood-forming cells into abnormal white blood cells whose unrestrained growth overwhelms and replaces normal bone marrow and blood cells. Leukemias are named according to the normal cell from which they originate, such as Lymphocyte Leukemia. Lymphocyte Leukemia is where a Lympho
Life of Octopus Dofleini Introduction This is a research report on octopuses in general, however will focus in on a particular species of octopus, the North Pacific Giant or octopus dofleini , which is a bottom dwelling octopus that lives on coasts of the pacific ocean, from California to north Japan. This report will cover the habitat, and lifestyle of this amazing mollusk, that is so often misunderstood. The octopus is a very intelligent, and resourceful invertebrate whose natural abilities sh
Mad Cow Disease Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), better know as Mad cow disease is a relatively new disease. Most sources state that BSE first showed up in Great Britain in 1986 [Dealler p.5] but some say it popped up in 1985 [Greger p.1]. However the official notification was not until 21 June, 1988 [Dealler stats. p.1]. Spongiform encephalopathies are invariable fatal neurodegenerative diseases and there is no treatment nor is there a cure for this disease [Greger p.1]. The recent scare
What Are The Major Components of Biological Membranes And How Do They Contribute To Membrane Function?. Summary. The role of the biological membrane has proved to be vital in countless mechanisms necessary to a cells survival. The phospholipid bilayer performs the simpler functions such as compartmentation, protection and osmoregulation. The proteins perform a wider range of functions such as extracellular interactions and metabolic processes. The carbohydrates are found in conjunction with both
On Darwin\'s Theory of Natural Selection Dale Anderson AP Biology February 3, 1997 Whether it is Lamarck\'s theory that evolution is driven by an innate tendency towards greater complexity, Darwin\'s theory of natural selection, or the belief that the evolution of plant and animal life is controlled by a higher being, the process of evolution cannot be denied. Archaeological investigations have proven that species evolve over time, but the unanswered questions are " How?" and "Why?" The answer l
Orangutans Tim Sanderson Anth 111 In Malay orang means "person" and utan is defined as "forest\'. Thus Orangutan literally means "Person of the Forest". Orangutans are found in the tropical forests of Sumatra and Borneo. They are the most arboreal of the great apes and move amongst the safety of the trees from one feeding site to the next. They are so well adapted to arboreal life that they cannot place their feet on the ground, instead they walk on the outside of their curved foot. There is a s
Facts about Orthoptera Where they live. Field crickets, the familiar black or brownish crickets are often abundant in meadows and fields. Also in dwellings or in small clusters in the ground. Tree Crickets are more often heard then seen. Usually colored green these slender crickets live in shrubs and trees. Mole Crickets can burrow rapidly through moist soil. They also can live in caves, hollow logs, beneath stones, and other dark moist places. Grasshoppers are also part of this group. They ofte
The Praying Mantis (Mantis Religiosa) Contents Introduction Classes First Things First Key Features Basic Features Diet & Combat Style Reproduction Growth & Development Self-Defense Cultural Significance Praying Mantis Kung-Fu INTRODUCTION "Praying Mantis" is the name commonly used in English speaking countries to refer to a large, much elongated, slow-moving insect with fore legs fitted for seizing and holding insect prey. The name, "Praying Mantis" more properly refers to the specific Mantid s
Predator - Prey Relationships The relationship between predators and their prey is an intricate and complicated relationship; covering a great area of scientific knowledge. This paper will examine the different relationships between predator and prey; focusing on the symbiotic relations between organisms, the wide range of defense mechanisms that are utilized by various examples of prey, and the influence between predators and prey concerning evolution and population structure. Symbiosis is the
Prions Prions have been a mistery for scientists from the day they where discovered. Prions act like viruses but they are not. Their structure and chemistry are unknown. They are believed to be proteins but that is yet to be completely proved. Prion stands for “proteinaceous infectious particles”. Prions are known to cause many diseases involved with nervous systems like the brain. They are the ones that cause the well known “ mad cow ” disesase in Britain and “scrapie” for animals. For humans t
Rabies Rabies is an infectious disease of animals which is a member of a group of viruses constituting the family Rhabdoviridae. The virus particle is covered in a fatty membrane, is bullet-shaped, 70 by 180 nanometres and contains a single helical strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Although rabies is usually spread among domestic dogs and wild carnivorous animals, all warm-blooded animals are susceptible to infection. The virus is often present in the salivary glands of infected animals, referre
Respiratory Diseases Respiration is the process of taking in and using oxygen. There are three different phases of respiration: external respiration, internal respiration, and cellular respiration. External respiration is the intake of oxygen from the environment and the release of carbon dioxide. In internal respiration, oxygen is carried to the cells and carbon dioxide is carried away from the cells. In cellular respiration, oxygen is used in chemical reactions within the cells. Some Diseases
Vegetarians Hugh Buchanan Growth problems. Animal population problems. Disease. These are all problems caused by being a vegetarian, that is, one who only eats vegetables. There are different degrees of being a vegetarian. To one extreme, is a person who eats nothing associated with animals (no yogurt, ice-cream, or even anything that has come in contact with meat or another animal). The opposite are those who just eat vegan most of the time and will still eat animal bi-products. Then there are
Sharks "It’s tail swayed slowly from side to side, pushing the hunters body through the murky water. All signs of motion were non-existant, except for the rhythmic movement of the water over the five gill slits on either side of it’s head. Slowly gaining speed, the shady figures unmoving eyes fixed on it’s target, a lost harbor seal pup. As the distance between the predator and it’s prey grew closer, the jaws of the massive fish drew forward, exposing nearly eight rows of razor sharp teeth. Stri
The Siberian Tiger The Siberian Tiger, sometimes referred to as the Manchurian Tiger, is an endothermic quadruped in the kingdom of Animalia. It\'s phylum is Chordata and it\'s class is Mammillia. It\'s order is Carnivora and it\'s family is the Felidae. It\'s genus is Panthera and it\'s species is Tigris Altaica. The Siberian Tiger is a mobile creature and it lives in northern Asia and is found as for north as the Arctic Circle. It\'s territory is more than four thousand square miles and it wil
The Application of Fractal Geometry to Ecology Principles of Ecology 310L Victoria Levin 7 December 1995 Abstract New insights into the natural world are just a few of the results from the use of fractal geometry. Examples from population and landscape ecology are used to illustrate the usefulness of fractal geometry to the field of ecology. The advent of the computer age played an important role in the development and acceptance of fractal geometry as a valid new discipline. New insights gained