AZT The AIDS virus is one of the most deadly and most wide spread diseases in the modern era. The disease was first found in 1981 as doctors around the United States began to report groups of young, homosexual men developing a rare pneumonia caused by an organism called Penumocystis carini. These patients then went on to develop many other new and rare complications that had previously been seen only in patients with severely damaged immune systems. The Center for Disease Control in the United S
Chemical and Biological Weapons Chemical and biological weapons are the most dangerous threats that our soldiers face today. But just how much do most of us know about them? The American public had been bombarded by stories of how our government keeps secret weapons, does secret experiments, and the everlasting conspiracies. And many accept it all. Rather than simply trusting our government, (which is perhaps as foolish as believing several unsubstansiated theroies), I’ve compiled several simple
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid are two chemical substances involved in transmitting genetic information from parent to offspring. It was known early into the 20th century that chromosomes, the genetic material of cells, contained DNA. In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty concluded that DNA was the basic genetic component of chromosomes. Later, RNA would be proven to regulate protein synthesis. (Miller, 139) DNA is the genetic material found in most virus
Expansion on the Recent Discoveries Concerning Nitric Oxide as presented by Dr. Jack R. Lancaster Nitric Oxide, or NO, its chemical representation, was until recently not considered to be of any benefit to the life processes of animals, much less human beings. However, studies have proven that this simple compound had an abundance of uses in the body, ranging from the nervous system to the reproductive system. Its many uses are still being explored, and it is hoped that it can play an active rol
Flouridation In 1931 at the University of Arizona Agricultural Experiment Station M. C. Smith, E. M. Lantz, and H. V. Smith discovered that when given drinking water supplied with fluorine, rats would develop tooth defects. Further testing by H. T. Dean and E. Elove of the United States Public Health Service confirmed this report, and stated that what is known as mottled tooth. Mottled tooth is a condition in which white spots develop on the back teeth. Gradually the white spots get darker and d
Involvement of K+ in Leaf Movements During Suntracking Introduction Many plants orient their leaves in response to directional light signals. Heliotropic movements, or movements that are affected by the sun, are common among plants belonging to the families Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Nyctaginaceae, and Oxalidaceae. The leaves of many plants, including Crotalaria pallida, exhibit diaheliotropic movement. C. pallida is a woody shrub native to South Africa. Its trifoliate leaves are connected to the peti
Lead and The Environment Some materials are so commonplace that we take them for granted. One of those materials is a grayish metal that has been with us for thousands of years. That metal is lead, still one of the world\'s most useful substances, and one that never ceases to find a role in human society. Lead has the atomic symbol of Pb (for plumbum, lead in Latin). The atomic number for lead is 82 and the atomic mass is 207.19 AMU. It melts at about 327.502 oC and boils at 1740 oC. Lead is a h
Nuclear Power: Cons Since the days of Franklin and his kite flying experiments, electricity has been a topic of interest for many people and nations. Nuclear power has been a great advance in the field of electrical production in the last fifty years, with it\'s clean, efficient and cheap production, it has gained a large share of the world\'s power supply. However with the wealth of safer alternative sources of electricity, the dangers involved with nuclear reactors to humans (ie. cancer) and p
Oxygen Oxygen, symbol O, colorless, odorless, tasteless, slightly magnetic gaseous element. On earth, oxygen is more abundant than any other element. Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by the British chemist Joseph Priestley and, independently, by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele; it was shown to be an elemental gas by the French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier in his classic experiments on combustion. Large amounts of oxygen are used in high-temperature welding torches, in which a mixture
Oxygen Oxygen and its compounds play a key role in many of the important processes of life and industry. Oxygen in the biosphere is essential in the processes of respiration and metabolism, the means by which animals derive the energy needed to sustain life. Furthermore, oxygen is the most abundant element at the surface of the Earth. In combined form it is found in ores, earths, rocks, and gemstones, as well as in all living organisms. Oxygen is a gaseous chemical element in Group VA of the per
The Ozone Layer In environmental science the green house effect is a common term for the role water vapor; carbon dioxide and ozone play in keeping the earth’s surface warmer than it would normally be. The atmosphere is primarily transparent to infrared radiation from the sun, which is mostly absorbed by the earth’s surface. The earth being much cooler than the sun, remits radiation most strongly at infrared wavelengths. Water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone then absorb much of this radiation an
Pheromones Do you often wonder what makes someone attracted to you or what makes you attracted to that other person? Sometimes you can look at the person and not even be attracted to their looks, but you feel compelled to talk to them or just contact them in any form. These urges could be induced by a compound group most commonly called "Pheromones." Pheromonesfair\'-uh-mohn} (from the Greek pher, "to carry" and horman "to stimulate") are chemicals released by organisms into the environment, whe
Andy Warhol Never before have I encountered more intriguing works of art than those done by Andy Warhol. I have been curious about his life ever since I saw his work in Milwaukee. I saw his famous work of the Campbell\'s Soup Can. By viewing this, one can tell he is not your average artist. I\'m sure his life is full of interesting events that shaped him into who he was. As an artist myself, I would like to get to know the background of his life. I may then be able to appreciate his styles and u
The Comparative Abundance of The Elements By Derrick Deacon - There are 92 naturally occurring elements, only 17 of them make up 99.5% of the earth\'s crust (including oceans and atmosphere). - In living things (plants, animals, people) the six most abundant elements are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. - The universe is dominated by the elements hydrogen (83%) and helium (16%) 1. The Crust The outside of the earth is a thin crust which is approximately 20 to 40km thick
Aristotle vs. Copernicus Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist, who shared with Plato the distinction of being the most famous of ancient philosophers. Aristotle was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. At the age of 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato\'s Academy. He remained there for about 20 years, as a student and then as a teacher. When Plato died in 347 bc , Aristotle moved to Assos, a city in Asia Minor, where a friend of his, Hermias (d.
AIDS Michelle Lee Pelletier Sarah Smith December, 16, 1998 Mr. Marquis Honors Chemistry Aids A.I.D.S is an epidemic of the nineties. There are over one million people infected with the HIV in the United States, and over 250,000 cases of Aids. The World Health Organization estimates that there are between five and ten million infected with the H.I.V virus. This number is rising steadily. A.I.D.S is the end result of H.I.V, and to this day there is no cure. H.I.V was discovered in 1981, but not un
Another Tumours A tumour is a mass of new tissue growth that does not react to normal controls or the organizing influence of other tissues, and it has no useful function in the body. This applies to both types of tumours, malignant and benign. Malignant, also known as, cancerous tumours, are additionally defined by their invasion of local tissue and their ability to spread to other parts of the body. Benign Tumours A benign tumour which is not cancerous, is less serious than malignant tumours b
Artificial insemination Artificial insemination is the injection of SEMEN into the vagina by instrumental means. The first artificial inseminations of viviparous (live-bearing) animals were performed by the 18th-century Italian physiologist Lazzaro Spallanzani, who proved that the male contribution to reproduction resided in the semen, although he did not recognize spermatozoa as the fertilizing agents. Pioneering work in the artificial insemination of dairy and beef animals was done in Russia a
Artificial Sweeteners Artificial sweeteners can taste wonderful to your taste buds, however can be very dangerous to a persons health. Almost everything people consume today has artificial sweeteners, such as Aspartame, Stevioside, Acesulfame, and Saccharin. The artificial sweetener Aspartame (i.e. Nutrasweet), (APM) is a dipeptide. A dipeptide is when 2 amino acids are linked together (as you know, amino acids make up proteins). The 2 amino acids are phenylalanine and aspartic acid. There is a
basics of the horse and horse family HORSES (Swiftness) The horses habitat depends on the type of horse, there are two types of horses. One is the standard horses which is commonly used for pleasure riding,showing, and rodeo (saddle bronc, bronc, barrel racing, roping, and gymcana.) This type of horse\'s habitat is usually on someone\'s ranch or farm. They are kept either in a stable or out on pasture for grazing. The other kind of horse is the Mustang, being quite smaller than the standard hors
Black Widow Spiders Adult black widow spiders have a shiny, black, rounded, circular abdomen and are about 1/3 inch long (about 1-1/2 inches when their legs are spread). Adult spiders have two reddish or yellowish triangles on their bottom which looks like an hourglass marking, and their body color is dark colored usually black or sometimes dark brown. They are usually recognized because of their red or red-orange hourglass design on the bottom of their abdomen. This pattern is changeable and ma
Cancer I chose to do my report on cancer because it is a subject I want to learn about and because it can probably fit 5 pages. My bibliography is on the ending of the report, my teacher helped me with it because I didnt know how to do it. Cancer is the name for tumors that are malignant. Malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit growing. Malignant tumors show a not normal cell structure the same functional specialized cells. Also cancer cells growing in laboratory tissue cul
Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas that occurs in small quantities in the earth\'s atmosphere naturally. The earth\'s ocean, soil, plants and animals release CO2. The formula of Carbon Dioxide is CO2. The CO2 molecule contains 2 oxygen atoms that each share 2 electrons with a carbon atom to form 2 carbon - oxygen double bonds. The atoms are arranged as so (OHT). This is called a \'linear molecule\'. Carbon dioxide is commonly found as a gas and is never a liquid. It subli
Carbon Dioxide In Beverages Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas, it has a small but sharp odor and a slightly sour taste. Each molecule of carbon dioxide consists of one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. Its chemical formula is CO2. Carbon Dioxide is about 1.5 times heavier than air. The specific volume at atmospheric pressure (101.3 kilopascals) and 70 F (21 C) is 8.74 ft3/lb. Under normal conditions it remains stable, inert and non-toxic. To liquefy CO2 it must be under 300 pound per inch
Charles Darwin Darwin was born in February, 1809. He left the school at Shrewsbury to the University of Edinburgh to study medicine. In 1827 he dropped out of medical school and entered the University of Cambridge, intending to become a clergyman. There he met Adam Sedgwick, a geologist and John Stevens Henslow, a naturalist. Henslow not only helped build Darwin\'s self-confidence but also taught his student to be an observer of natural phenomena and collector of specimens. After graduating from
Chimpanzees Chimpanzees are a genus of the great ape of Africa, with long black hair and log protruding ears. Humans know them for their intelligence and there very similarities. They have developed family ties similar to man. Over the generations they have even had developed tools out of natural materials. Food for chimpanzees is very important to them due to the excessive amount eating. Chimpanzees eat a variety of foods. They will get their food in many different ways. Bananas are one of the
Choas Theory In Biology Chaos In Biological Systems In today’s world of high-tech methods to study just about anything that exists, we are still imperfect. Scientists continue to look for ways to understand, explain, and even predict the actions and reactions of the universe. In the last two centuries, scientists have been looking in every possible place to understand the universe; from science, to math, even religion. They have turned to mathematicians and their strange theories of determinism
Cocaine Cocaine is a drug extracted from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a potent brain stimulant and one of the most powerfully addictive drugs. Cocaine is distributed on the street in two main forms: cocaine hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder that can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected; and crack is cocaine hydrochloride that has been processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water into a freebase cocaine. These chips, chunks, or rocks can be smoked
Coevolution, With Particular Reference To Herbivory COEVOLUTION with particular reference to herbivory BIOL 0106 ASSESED COURSEWORK RORY AULD JANUARY 2000 COEVOLUTION WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO HERBIVORY Of all the extant organisms in the world, it is believed that terrestrial plants and their natural ‘enemies’ constitute more than forty percent. Moreover, plants exhibit a remarkable diversity of supposedly defensive characteristics including trichomes, spines, silica, secondary chemical compo
Dams Many people have already dammed a small stream using sticks and mud by the time they become adults. Humans have used dams since early civilization, because four-thousand years ago they became aware that floods and droughts affected their well-being and so they began to build dams to protect themselves from these effects.1 The basic principles of dams still apply today as they did before; a dam must prevent water from being passed. Since then, people have been continuing to build and perfect
Dioxin Pollution Dioxin is one of the most toxic chemicals known. A report released for public comment in September 1994 by the US Environmental Protection Agency clearly describes dioxin as a serious public health threat. The public health impact of dioxin may rival the impact that DDT had on public health in the 1960\'s. According to the EPA report, not only does there appear to be no safe level of exposure to dioxin, but levels of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals have been found in the genera
Endangered Species Bonnie Gleason Ecology October 20,1995 Endangered Species One example that can affect mankind if not foretell it, that seems small and insignificant, is the disappearance of frogs. In 1970, a science students was studying frogs. While collecting information out in a field, she had to take care not to step on any of the frogs that she was studying as there was so many of them. Two years later, all she encountered were a few dying frogs with puffy red legs. The frogs\' immune sy
Enviormentalism Evironmentalism: The Next Step Broad Social Change Through Personal Commitment Introduction In the last thirty years, America has witnessed an environmental revolution. New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. Social phenomena like Earth Day, organized by Dennis Hayes in 1970, and the beginning of large-scale recycling, marked by Oregon\'s 1972 Bottle Bill, have help change the way Americans think a
Evolution It has been over 100 years since English naturalist Charles Darwin first told the world his revolutionary concept about how livings things develop. Evolution through natural selection and adaptation was the basis of his argument as it remains to this day a debated subject by many. Across this nation, a return to traditional values has also brought the return of age old debated topics. One issue that truly separates Americans is the issue of creation versus evolution. Since the 19th cen
FAS On any given day in the United States... 10,657 babies are born. (US Census Bureau). Twenty of these babies are born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Twenty may seem as though it is not a lot, but when you compare it to the fact that this number is more than HIV positive, Muscular Dystrophy, Spina Bifida and Down Syndrome combine it creates a whole new parameter. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is a direct result of a woman’s competed disregard for the fetus. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS, hereinafter), is
Genetic Engineering, History And FutureAltering The Face Of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply aff
Global Warming Reptiles Enjoyed Warm Arctic (Global Warming) An article written by ABC News writer Kenneth Chang discusses the change in climate of the arctic from ninety million years ago. Seven hundred miles from the North Pole, lies an island called Axel Heiberg, a barren land that scientists have dug up fossil bones of a cold-blooded reptile known as a champsosaur. How does this happen in an arctic, freezing land? How does a reptile that needs the warmth of the sun to survive, live in a frig
Gregor Johann Mendel Gregor Mendel was born in Heinzendorff in 1822 and died in 1884. Ever since Mendel was a boy he was very interested in science. Whenever his friends would come back from school they would tell Mendel what they studied and he would be so excited. Mendel was so interested about what his friends told him that he begged his father to let him study. This meant a great sacrifice to his father he because owned a small farm. Needless to say, he sent his young son Gregor, who was onl
Human Cloning Imagine it is the year 2008. As you pick up your daily issue of the New York Times, you begin to read some of the interesting articles on the front page. The top story of the paper reads, Germany Wins All Gold Medals at the Olympic Games: Is Cloning in Competitive Events Fair? Other interesting articles reported on the front page include: Rock Star Stacy Levesque and Lover’s Nuclear Transplanted Child is Born and Former President George Bush’s Cloned Heart Transplant A Success. The
It\'s Tough Being A Turtle It’s Tough Being a Turtle Everyday, I go about my daily activities of slowly waking up, taking a walk with my family to the Mississippi River, bathing daily, and many other activities. Sometimes I just enjoy sitting on the shore with the water splashing up on me every once in a while. Occasionally, when we’re hungry my friends and I hunt for mussels or clams along the river bank. We basically go about doing our own thing. Sporadically something exciting happens, like w
Lab SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES INTRODUCTION According to the Websters’ dictionary, a sexually transmitted disease, or commonly termed STD, can be defined as any of various diseases transmitted by direct sexual contacted that include classic venereal diseases (as syphilis, gonorrhea, and chancroid) and other diseases (as hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, giordiasis, and AIDS) that are often or sometimes contracted by other sexual means (Internet 3). This lab report will be dealing with three specific
Landcare Revegetation Rehabilitation is the process of reclaiming land for economical or conservation purposes. This process usually involves re-vegetation. The main aim in rehabilitation is to either return the land to a self-sustaining ecosystem or prepare the land for human use, i.e. crops, pastures and plantations. Rehabilitation should take place at a rate that is significantly higher than natural succession. Several principles are implemented for successful rehabilitation. Of these princip
Life Until recently, scientists believed that the sole source of energy responsible for life on earth was the sun. In 1977, a group of scientists researching the theory of plate tectonics, traveled to the floor of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and discovered something that could possibly explain how life began on this planet. From the Galapagos Rift\'s thermal springs, scientists discovered densely populated communities of several species never before observed. Since that time the Federal Governm
Lithium In 1817, an aging Swedish chemist was pouring over his work on a late afternoon in Stockholm, Sweden. He was analyzing a strange ore named Petalite that had been procured from an island off the coast of Sweden called Utö. The ore Petalite (which is now recognized to be LiAl(Si2O5)2) had been discovered by a Brazilian scientist, José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva towards the end of the 18th century on a visit to Sweden. This Swedish scientist, Johann August Arfvedson, detected traces of an
LSD (lysergic Acid Dyethilamide) A Swiss chemist named Dr. Albert Hoffman first produced lysergic acid Diethylmide –or best known as LSD in 1938 (Dye, 1992, p. 2). Hoffman discovered the drug while trying to synthesize a new drug for the treatment of headaches. He obtained the lysergic acid from the parasitic fungus that grows on rye plants known as ergot. From the lysergic acid, he synthesized the compound LSD. He used the compound to test for its pain killing properties on laboratory animals.
Managing Planet Earth In William Clarks\' Article, Managing Planet Earth from the Scientific American sustainable development describes the type of planet people want, and also brings up the question of what kind of planet people can actually get. It reflects values for managing earth where fairness matters. Sustainable development refers to how people as a whole want to improve the earth for the better by sustaining it while it is being developed. The three objectives to manage the sustainable
Mysteries of the Virus Introduction to viruses: For centuries submicroscopic organisms, also known as viruses, that grow and multiply at different rates inside of a cell, have been circulating our planet.1 The cell produces the various, essential components of the virus. These components are: 1) DNA or RNA nucleic acids, which are the genes of the virus. Viral particles posses either DNA strands or RNA strands, but never both in contrast bacterial infections contain both. The amount of DNA/RNA i
Penguins Myopic little men in tuxedos, or highly efficient land/water animals? Recent research indicates there\'s more to penguins than meets the eye. If you\'ve every wondered what it would be like to be able to see as clearly under water as you can on land, just ask the nearest penguin.Most aquatic animals are short-sighted on land. Most terrestrial animals (and that includes us) are far-sighted under water. But researchers have discovered that penguins can apparently see equally well in both
Pollution Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. It is a major problem in America and as well as the world. Pollution not only damages the environment, but damages us also. It has cause many problems ranging from lung cancer to the greenhouse effect. It is all among us and but we continue to live in our own filth. What is the reason behind this flawed logic? In this paper I will examine the problems and solutions for this issue. Automobiles are unde
Respiration We as humans need a way to gather oxygen from our enviroment to survive. In response our body has a system that carries out respiration which is the distrubition of oxygen to the blood and the disposal of the waste product carbon dioxide. In the human breathing process the first step is the breath in. First we open the mouth and expand our lungs to bring in air. The first place the air travles into our mouths which is an opening in the human body used for taking in air, food, and the