Animal-science

Food Processing Throughout the history of mankind science has searched into the realms of the unknown. Along with it bringing new discoveries, allowing for our lives to become healthier, more efficient, safer, and at the same time, possibly more dangerous. Among the forces driving scientists into these many experiments, is the desire to preserve the one fuel that keeps our lives going; FOOD. As early as the beginning of the 19th century, major breakthroughs in food preservation had begun. Soldie
Genetically Altered Foods It is quite evident that as technology advances m the scientific sense, we as Americans are becoming more interested. One of the conflicts that have raised concern here lately is that on genetically altered foods. By no surprise, one of the major questions of many is whether or not these foods are safe. As altered foods continue to be produced, we will begin to see much controversy. As the growing industry expands, soils the research, not only nationally, but also inter
Make-Up Art Cosmetics Make-up Art Cosmetics, also known as M.A.C. cosmetics is a highly unique corporation. Its founders and business strategies are rather simple yet extremely effective in contributing to the companies success. The company does not use any fancy business schemes and it is truly concerned with its consumers. In the beginning, the company struggled to get started, but now a multimillion dollar (and still growing) enterprise, M.A.C. probably has some of the most popular and most d
Obesity America has become a society obsessed with appearance, especially weight. We are conditioned at a young age to believe the only way to be normal is to be thin. This norm is projected to millions of Americans each day through television, magazines, billboards and every other form of media and advertising. How are people to know acceptance and happiness with themselves and others when our culture propagates what the perfect body should be. It is the search for the elusive, perfect body tha
Steroids "I just wanted to boost my performance." These are the words spoken by numerous athletes who have been captured using steroids. The continuous stress and pressure on athletes to perform well has caused some to breakdown and take steroids as an easy way to bulk up. Steroids amongst athletes is not the only problem. Other reasons for taking steroids may be to heal injury, improve appearance, or for various social factors. High School is definitely tough on self-esteem for teenagers who lo
Plagues and Diseases Plague. A word that has struck fear in the hearts of man since the earliest of times. It has also lead to some of the greatest historical events and stories of our time. The ancient cities of Rome and Athens, in their downfall, were finished off by pestilence. The Bubonic Plague, also known as The Black Death, devastated Europe in the 14th century, starting a new age. The great warrior Ivan the Terrible was stricken with disease, and driven mad. During the "exploration" of t
Treating Diabetes with Transplanted Cells Seventy-five years ago the type of diabetes that affected children and young adults was lethal. In the 1990\'s investigators found that a hormone, that was produced in Islets of Langerhans, was not being produced in diabetes patients. This hormone, called insulin, enables other cells to take up sugar glucose from the blood for energy. Diabetes patients who were not making insulin had glucose from food accumulating in the blood while other tissues were st
Air Pollution CFish Mr. Nollen Biology 2B 8 May, 1996 The Problem Contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. A byproduct of the radioactive decay of uranium minerals in certain kinds of
All About Ants (almost) Among the many hundreds of thousands of astonishing organisms with which we must share this earth, there is one seemingly ordinary group of specimens which fascinates many people beyond all others. There is nothing too extraordinary in the proportions or appearance of ants, but it is their history and culture that induces a second look. These insects are about as different from us mammals as two organisms can be, yet it appears that of all the known animals their way of l
Army Ants Anthony Palmieri November 20, 1996 Contemporary Science Topics A quote made by Lewis Thomas, "Ants are so much like human beings as to be an embarrassment. They farm fungus, raise aphids as livestock, launch armies into war, use chemical sprays to alarm and confuse enemies, and exchange information ceaselessly. They do everything but watch television." I am going to focus this report on the part of the quote, "..launch armies into war..," which sets a metaphor of ants and our armies in
Ancient Advances in Mathematics Ancient knowledge of the sciences was often wrong and wholly unsatisfactory by modern standards. However not all of the knowledge of the more learned peoples of the past was false. In fact without people like Euclid or Plato we may not have been as advanced in this age as we are. Mathematics is an adventure in ideas. Within the history of mathematics, one finds the ideas and lives of some of the most brilliant people in the history of mankind\'s\' populace upon Ea
Fibonacci Numbers The Fibonacci numbers were first discovered by a man named Leonardo Pisano. He was known by his nickname, Fibonacci. The Fibonacci sequence is a sequence in which each term is the sum of the 2 numbers preceding it. The first 10 Fibonacci numbers are: (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89). These numbers are obviously recursive. Fibonacci was born around 1170 in Italy, and he died around 1240 in Italy. He played an important role in reviving ancient mathematics and made signific
Trigonometry Trigonometry uses the fact that ratios of pairs of sides of triangles are functions of the angles. The basis for mensuration of triangles is the right- angled triangle. The term trigonometry means literally the measurement of triangles. Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that developed from simple measurements. A theorem is the most important result in all of elementary mathematics. It was the motivation for a wealth of advanced mathematics, such as Fermat\'s Last Theorem and t
Birds Birds are some of the most amazing animals on earth. Most have the ability to fly. Some use ground travel. Some use claws, others use only their beaks. Birds come in many varieties of colors and sizes. Birds are warm-blooded, egg-laying creatures from the aves class. Along with the obvious feathers and wings, birds have other adaptations for flying such as a wide keel on the sternum, with large wing muscles attached, air spaces and sacs throughout the body and bones, to decrease their weig
Brain Transplant Medical technology has seemed to advance enough so that doctors are able to perform brain transplants. So far this procedure has only been successfully performed on animals, and now doctors hope to perform this procedure on humans. I believe brain transplants should not be performed at all, and especially not on humans because of the numerous problems and side effects that could arise. Even though brain transplants can be successfully performed on animals, this does not mean tha
Charles Darwin: His Life Story of Dicovery Andy Zerzan Biology Mr Herron 1st Hour Extra Credit 10/95 "The Catholic church has absolutely no view on \'Darwin\'s Theory of Evolution\' or \'Darwinism\' what is commonly believed by the magistarium is that one should not necessarily take the Bible in a literal sense ..." -An excerpt from Robert Richard\'s The Meaning of Evolution. Charles Darwin, a British naturalist has revolutionized biological and genetic studies with his new idea of "Natural Sele
The Circulatory System The circulatory system in anatomy and physiology is the course taken by the blood through the arteries, capillaries, and veins and back to the heart. In humans and the higher vertebrates, the heart is made up of four chambers the right and left auricles, or atria, and the right and left ventricles. The right side of the heart pumps oxygen-poor blood from the cells of the body back to the lungs for new oxygen; the left side of the heart receives blood rich in oxygen from th
Cloning A few years ago if you were to ask someone about the possibilities of cloning they would most likely say it was impossible. This attitude towards cloning has been held into belief up until recently when scientists in Scotland cloned a sheep. And immediately after scientists in Oregon cloned a monkey (Fackelmann 276). The most major breakthroughs of the century in science has occurred and we are not ready for it. The scientific breakthrough of cloning has caused a great deal of controvers
Creationism vs Evolution: Through The Eyes of Jay Gould It has been over 100 years since English naturalist Charles Darwin first told the world his revolutionary concept about how livings things develop. Evolution through natural selection and adaptation was the basis of his argument as it remains to this day a debated subject by many. Across this nation, a "return" to "traditional" values has also brought the return of age old debated topics. One issue that truly separates Americans is the issu
Carbon Without the element of carbon, life as we know it would not exist. Carbon provides the framework for all tissues of plants and animals. They are built of elements grouped around chains or rings made of carbon atoms. Carbon also provides common fuels--coal, oil, gasoline, and natural gas. Sugar, starch, and paper are compounds of carbon with hydrogen and oxygen. Proteins such as hair, meat, and silk contain these and other elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More than six an
Frogs Frog is the common name for a species of amphibian that also includes toads. A very common question is “whats the difference between frogs and toads?” , the answer: none, except for the fact that toads lack the powerful legs that frogs have. “Where can frogs and toads be found?”, one might ask. They live in all parts of the world, except for Antarctica, but are mostly found in tropical areas. Frogs are small animals with smooth moist skin, and big eyes that can see in almost any direction.
The Future of Human Evolution Alexander R. Prof. Kohn Darwinism and Evolution 12-6-96 Evolution, the science of how populations of living organisms change over time in response to their environment, is the central unifying theme in biology today. Evolution was first explored in its semi-modern form in Charles Darwin \'s 1859 book, Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection. In this book, Darwin laid out a strong argument for evolution. He postulated that all species have a common ancestor f
Genetic Engineering The engineering of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is entirely new, yet genetics, as a field of science, has fascinated mankind for over 2,000 years. Man has always tried to bend nature around his will through selective breeding and other forms of practical genetics. Today, scientists have a greater understanding of genetics and its role in living organisms. Unfortunately, some people are trying to stop further studies in genetics, but the research being conducted today will serv
Genetic Engineering, History and Future: Altering the Face of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply a
Hammerhead Sharks Marine Science/ Per. 1 Sharks are one of the most feared sea animals. They live in oceans across the world but are most common in tropical waters. There are over three hundred fifty species of sharks. They can be broadly categorized into the following four groups: Squalomorphii, Squatinomorphii, Batoidea, and Galeomorphii. The shark family Sphyrnidae that includes the Hammerheads are part of the Galeomorphic classification. They are probably the most easily recognizable of all
Homo Aquaticus? I. Introduction When the human brain is compared with the brains of apes there are several obvious differences; the centers for the sense of smell and foot control are larger in apes than in humans, but the centers for hand control, airway control, vocalization, language and thought are larger in humans. In my paper, I will describe the most defined differences of brain size and centers between humans and their closest relatives, chimpanzees, to compare them with other mammals an
Investigation of Reproduction and Development in Animals Due Date: 12/9/96 Cycles, Conception and Contraception Fertility is the condition of being fertile. The aim of contraception is to inhibit fertility in individuals, hence, slowing population growth. The system by which all female contraception must operate: the menstrual cycle. What is the menstrual cycle? and what hormones are involved in controlling it? After puberty, the female produces an egg each month. Other changes take place on a c
Recognizing Laboratory Safety Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to stay safe no matter what you\'re doing in lab. You may be working with dangerous materials such as glass or acid. Procedure: I am following the procedure described in pages 21-24 in the Biology Laboratory Manual. Observations: Does not apply to this lab Answers to Questions: 1. The flask symbol means glassware safety. Glassware can be broken easily. 2. The goggle symbol means that you are working with fire. It is extremely impo
The Language of The Cell MAY 3rd, 1996 SCIENCE 10 AP The cell is a complex and delicate system: It can be seen that the cell is the stage where everyday functions such as molecule movement, protein synthesis and tissue repair take place. All organelles within the cell are well rehearsed in their operations, but an error on an organelles behalf, can send the cell and it’s organelles into panic. The efficiency rate of the cell plummets down to a low level. It does take some time for the dust to se
Leprosy Mike Wallis Leprosy or Hansen’s disease, is a chronic, infectious disease that mainly affects the skin, mucous membranes, and nerves. A rod shaped bacillus named Mycobacterium leprea, causes the virus. Mycobacterium leprea is very similar to the bacillus that causes tuberculosis. The reason Leprosy is also known as Hansen’s disease, is because it was first identified in 1874 by a Norwegian physician named Gerhard Henrik Armeur Hansen. Leprosy appears in both the Old and New Testaments. I
Lipids The subject I will cover is lipids. I will tell you about the description of it’ s organic compound. I will tell you where it is found. I will tell you what the uses are in plants and animals. I will also tell you about it’s chemical structure and give examples of types of these compounds, such as cholesterol. The organic compound of lipids have many similarities. They are almost always greasy, fatty, oily, or waxy. They do not dissolve in water, but they do in other organic solvents. Thi
Manatee The manatee popularly called the sea cow is any of the species of large water animals in the genus Trichechus. There are three species of manatee with T. inunguis found in the Amazon and Orinoco river systems; T. manatus is found in central Florida and along the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean coasts; and T. senegalenis found in the rivers of tropical West Africa. A manatee is a slow moving, seal shaped mammal that lives in shallow coastal waters where rich plant grows. It usually is at hom
Melatonin And The Pineal Gland Set deep in our brains is a tiny gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland is in charge of the endocrine system, the glandular system that controls most of our bodily functions. The pineal runs our Œbody clocks\', and it produces melatonin; the hormone that may prove to be the biggest medical discovery since penicilin, and the key to controlling the aging process. The pineal gland controls such functions as our sleeping cycle and the change of body temperature
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis is an infectious disease of humans in which the blood and tissues contain mononuclear leukocytes (white blood cells with only one nucleus), either monocytes or lymphocytes. An infectious disease is a disease that can give you an infection, can be transmitted by infection without actual contact, or can be caused by a microorganism. All species of animals are afflicted with infections caused by a wide variety of organisms, from submicroscopic viruses to wormlike parasit
New Developments or Research in Genetic Cloning: Summary Since genetic cloning is a very wide topic, the focus of my paper lies mainly on the new discoveries which might be beneficial to human beings. The focus of the first section of the paper is on the various cloning techniques geneticists use nowadays. They techniques included range from the simplest and suitable for all situations, to complicated and suitable for certain areas. The second section of the paper, the longest section, discusses
Sunrise on the Veldt: Order Order is sought instinctively. In Literature, as well as Biology, order is sought instinctively by authors and scientists. Authors use order to convey real-life incidents and make their stories seem more realistic. Scientists use a way of classification to bring order to Biology. The life cycle, as the cycle of a virus, shows order. The young boy in the short story, "Sunrise on the Veldt," found order in the life cycle. He sought this order to help him explain the dea
Photosynthesis Matt Lazar 5/13/96 8th Hr. When you and me eat, we find our food. When plants eat, they make their own food and energy. They make their food and energy through a process called photosynthesis. Through photosynthesis oxygen is also produced. Photosynthesis is "a process in which green plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water....The reverse of this reaction provides energy for plants, for animals that eat plants, for animals that eat animals that eat plants" for
The Prairie An ecoysystem is all the biotic and abiotic components of an environment. The prairie is located in North America. The tempaturevaries greatly and the environment doesn\'t get enough rainfall to support trees. One organism in the ecoysystem that adapts well is grass which withstands grazing animals and occasional fires. Producer: An autotroph organism (grass). Consumer: Organism that eats producers (caterpillars, bison). Primary consumer: Organisms that eat consumers (chicken, meadow
Properties of Water Water is essential for life as we know it on earth. It is used by plants and animals for basic biological processes which would be impossible without the use of water. The origin of all life can be traced back to the water in the Earth\'s precambrien seas. Water is also the universal solvent. It reacts with more elements and compounds than any other substance known to man. Water is a polar molecule made up of on atom of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen. It is attracted to its
UFOs "Little Green Men", "Martians", "Outer Limits" ! That is what people think about when aliens and UFOs come to mind. Aliens have been around, as far as we can see, since 1561. The question is now asked, How come because they [UFOs] have been sighted, encountered, and taken hostage; Why have we been kept in the dark by our governments? "Since UFOs were considered a security risk, the report on these sightings was originally classified as secret (Kadrey 22)." The name \'flying saucer\' was \'c
Tapeworm Infestation Charlotte Cox Causative agent: Tapeworms are parasitic Helmiths of the Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) and Class Cestodes. They include Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm), Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) and Diphyllobothrium latum and Echinococcus granulosus . Anatomy: Scolex (head) with suckers, sometimes hooks. Proglottids -body segments continuously produced by the scolex which contain both testes and ovaries that mature as they move away from scolex to produce eggs. Taenia
The Cambrian Period Science 10/26/95 During the Cambrian Period a lot of things happened both geologically and biologically. The Cambrian Period was the first period of the Paleozoic Era, it lasted from 570 million years ago to 500 million years ago, 70 million years. It¹s very important because it corresponds with the firs t appearance of abundant fossils especially Trilobites, which characterizes a succeeding point in time. During the Cambrian Period the lapetus Ocean appeared, the predecessor
The Ebola Virus A virus is an ultramicroscopic infectious organism that, having no independent metabolic activity, can replicate only within a cell of another host organism. A virus consists of a core of nucleic acid, either RNA or DNA, surrounded by a coating of antigenic protein and sometimes a lipid layer surrounds it as well. The virus provides the genetic code for replication, and the host cell provides the necessary energy and raw materials. There are more than 200 viruses that are know to
The Grasslands Picture yourself being able to see from horizon to horizon. The land is flat, and covered with different kinds of crops and small bunches of trees. You can see a village near the river. Most houses are made of brick, with some being wood. Power lines run up and down the street. Close your eyes and the scene changes to a less familiar place. The land is flat with some steep hills nearby. In this scene, instead of brick and wood houses you see houses made out of dung. The ground is
The Plague Since the reign of Emperor Justinian in 542 A.D., man has one unwelcome organism along for the ride, Yersinia pestis. This is the bacterium more commonly know as the Black Death, the plague. Plague is divided into three biotypes, each associated with one of three major pandemics occurring in history. Each of these biotypes are then divided into three distinct types, classified by method of infection. The most widely know is bubonic, an infection of plague that resides in the lymph nod
The Worlds Fight Against Microbes Many infectious diseases that were nearly eradicated from the industrialized world, and newly emerging diseases are now breaking out all over the world due to the misuse of medicines, such as antibiotics and antivirals, the destruction of our environment, and shortsighted political action and/or inaction. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are a group of diseases caused by viruses from four distinct families of viruses: filoviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, and bunyavi
Tiger Subspecies I am here writing a report on the sub species of tigers. Many of these tigers will not survive in the next forty years due to the killing that us humans have caused. Tiger sub species have not been as important to us humans as whether or not the species Tiger Panthera tigris can survive either in the wild or in captivity for the next forty years. Nevertheless a great deal of information on the future of the tiger can be learned from a study of subspecies. Which is what my report
Protists and Viruses A flagellum is a whiplike tail that helps organisms living in moist places to move The characteristics of protists is they are euckaryotic organisms, they are one or many-celled but do not have the complex organization found in plants and animals, and some make there own food and other can\'t. Protists are plantlike, animallike and funguslike. A virus is a microscopic particles that make up either DNA or RNA core covered by a protein coat. Viruses are so small an electrn mic
Chemistry I am chemistry. I am mysterious and mature, malodorous, yet vivacious. I am a heaving search for answers to all kinds of interesting questions. I am extremely broad, that I overlap with all the other natural sciences. I am the fundamental unit of matter-the atom-only to be seen by the utmost effective microscope. I prosper in the dashing, fiery flames in a fragile glass beaker over a bunsen burner and develope powerful rocket fuels. I am a clamorous explosion of two flammable chemicals
Acid Rain INTRODUCTION: Acid rain is a great problem in our world. It causes fish and plants to die in our waters. As well it causes harm to our own race as well, because we eat these fish, drink this water and eat these plants. It is a problem that we must all face together and try to get rid of. However acid rain on it\'s own is not the biggest problem. It cause many other problems such as aluminum poisoning. Acid Rain is deadly. WHAT IS ACID RAIN? Acid rain is all the rain, snow, mist etc tha