American History

The Tragic Challenger Explosion The Tragic Challenger Explosion Space Travel. It is a sense of national pride for many Americans. If you ask anyone who was alive at the time, they could probably tell you exactly where they were when they heard that Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the Moon. But all of the success in our space programs is overshadowed by tragedy. On January 28, 1986, one of the worst disasters in our space program\'s history occurred. Many people were watching at th
Vegetarians Hugh Buchanan Growth problems. Animal population problems. Disease. These are all problems caused by being a vegetarian, that is, one who only eats vegetables. There are different degrees of being a vegetarian. To one extreme, is a person who eats nothing associated with animals (no yogurt, ice-cream, or even anything that has come in contact with meat or another animal). The opposite are those who just eat vegan most of the time and will still eat animal bi-products. Then there are
Sudden Infant Death Syndrom Sudden infant death syndrome, better known as S.I.D.S., is one of the leading causes for the inflated infant mortality rate in this country today. It is often misunderstood or unrecognizable. For the most part, the causes of SIDS are unknown to the general public. This is changing, however, as public awareness is ever increasing. Thus, the purpose of this paper will be to explain sudden infant death syndrome and its known or suggested causes. Also, the history of SIDS
The Application of Fractal Geometry to Ecology Principles of Ecology 310L Victoria Levin 7 December 1995 Abstract New insights into the natural world are just a few of the results from the use of fractal geometry. Examples from population and landscape ecology are used to illustrate the usefulness of fractal geometry to the field of ecology. The advent of the computer age played an important role in the development and acceptance of fractal geometry as a valid new discipline. New insights gained
The Genetics of Violence Introduction We, in the 1990’s, are slowly and inevitably being faced with the sociological and biological implications of impending genetic power. This power is analytical, in such cases as the Human Genome Project, which will hopefully succeed in mapping out the genetic code for the entire human genetic composition. Moreover, this power is preventative and participatory in that it can be, and is being, used to control the behavior of humans and other animals. This new
The Plague Since the reign of Emperor Justinian in 542 A.D., man has one unwelcome organism along for the ride, Yersinia pestis. This is the bacterium more commonly know as the Black Death, the plague. Plague is divided into three biotypes, each associated with one of three major pandemics occurring in history. Each of these biotypes are then divided into three distinct types, classified by method of infection. The most widely know is bubonic, an infection of plague that resides in the lymph nod
William Henry Gates III Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Microsoft Corporatio William (Bill) H. Gates is chairman and chief executive officer of Microsoft Corporation, the leading provider, worldwide, of software for the personal computer. Microsoft had revenues of $8.6 billion for the fiscal year ending June 1996, and employs more than 20,000 people in 48 countries. Background on Bill Born on October 28, 1955, Gates and his two sisters grew up in Seattle. Their father, William H. Gates II,
UFOs: We Are Not Alone OUTLINE I. THINGS IN THE SKY A. THE FIRST DOCUMENTED SIGHTING B. THE FEVER SPREADS 1. PILOT ENCOUNTERS 2. THE LIGHTS IN THE SKY II. DENTS IN THE EARTH III. UNEXPLAINED PHENOMENON A. THE WRITING ON THE WALL B. GEODES IV. WHAT ABOUT RELIGION? A. THE CHRISTIAN BIBLE B. THE ANCIENT GREEKS C. THE AMERICAN INDIAN V. CONCLUSION WE ONCE BELIEVED THAT THE EARTH IS THE ONLY PLANET IN THE UNIVERSE THAT SUPPORTS LIFE. TODAY THERE IS OVERWHELMING EVIDENCE THAT NOT ONLY SUGGESTS, BUT SU
Hypotheses of the Effects of Wolf Predation John Feldersnatch December 1st, 1995 Abstract: This paper discusses four hypotheses to explain the effects of wolf predation on prey populations of large ungulates. The four proposed hypotheses examined are the predation limiting hypothesis, the predation regulating hypothesis, the predator pit hypothesis, and the stable limit cycle hypothesis. There is much research literature that discusses how these hypotheses can be used to interpret various data s
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, was very important to the past history of our country. He helped to abolish slavery in this country and kept the American Union from splitting apart during the Civil War. At 22, he moved to New Salem, Illinois. With his gift for swapping stories and making friends, he became quite popular and was elected to the Illinois legislature in 1834. In his spare time, he taught himself law and became a lawyer. In 1847, he was elect
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, was very important to the past history of our country. He helped to abolish slavery in this country and kept the American Union from splitting apart during the Civil War. At 22, he moved to New Salem, Illinois. With his gift for swapping stories and making friends, he became quite popular and was elected to the Illinois legislature in 1834. In his spare time, he taught himself law and became a lawyer. In 1847, he was elect
UFO\'s Outline Thesis: We once believed that Earth is the only planet in the Universe that supports life. Today there is overwhelming evidence that not only suggests, but supports the very real possibility that we may share the Universe with other intelligent beings. I. Things in the Sky A. The First Documented Sighting B. The Fever Spreads 1. Pilot Encounters 2. The Lights in the Sky II. Dents in the Earth III. Unexplained Phenomenon A. The Writing on the Wall B. Geodes IV. What About Religion?
Chemical and Biological Weapons Chemical and biological weapons are the most dangerous threats that our soldiers face today. But just how much do most of us know about them? The American public had been bombarded by stories of how our government keeps secret weapons, does secret experiments, and the everlasting conspiracies. And many accept it all. Rather than simply trusting our government, (which is perhaps as foolish as believing several unsubstansiated theroies), I’ve compiled several simple
Cancer: The Costs, Causes, and Cures Cancer is a major killer of people all around the globe. We do not have a definite cure, but the amount of research done on this one disease costs on the average of $1.2 billion dollars annually, and $20 billion annually in care of cancer patients. What is Cancer? Cancer is a broad ranging term that is used by many people, including medical professionals such as doctors. Cancer, in its most fatal and aggressive form, is of a larger class of diseases known as
Frank J. Horgan Filtration Plant Introduction The Frank J. Horgan Filtration Plant is located Southeast of Toronto on the shores of Lake Ontario (See map). Its purpose is to provide safe drinking water to our taps by filtering the water. The water is gathered from Lake Ontario. This plant has a production capacity of 455 million litres per day to supply the residents of Toronto with drinking water. Its average production of drinking water is 355 million litres per day. It is also the newest filt
Marie Curie: A Pioneering Physicist Aspirations come from hopes and dreams only a dedicated person can conjure up. They can range from passing the third grade to making the local high school football team. Marie Curie\'s aspirations, however, were much greater. Life in late 19th century Poland was rough. Being a female in those days wasn\'t a walk in the park either. Marie Curie is recognized in history by the name she took in her adopted country, France. Born in Poland in 1867, she was christen
A Portrait of Duke Ellington By Tracy Frech Duke Ellington is considered to be one of the greatest figures in the history of American music. Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was born in Washington D.C. on April 29, 1899. His parents were James Edward and Daisy Kennedy Ellington. They raised Duke as an only child, until his sister, Ruth, was born when Duke was sixteen years old. Duke, even as a teenager, had a great talent for music. In the beginning of his musical life, Duke began to take a promi
The History, Use, and Effectiveness of Medicinal Drugs I. The History, Use, and Effectiveness of Medicinal Drugs A. Introduction (Pg\'s 1-2) II. Aspirin (Pg\'s 3-6) A. Its Origin B. Dosages C. Relative Effectiveness D. Side Effects E. Alternate Treatment III. Sulfa Drugs (Pg\'s 7-10) A. Its Origin B. Dosages C. Relative Effectiveness D. Side Effects E. Alternate Treatment IV. Antibiotics (Pg\'s 11-14) A. Its Origin B. Dosages C. Relative Effectiveness D. Side Effects E. Alternate Treatment V. An
A Queen Adored: England\'s Elizabeth II Countess of Longford, Elizabeth Pakenham, was born in London England in 1906. She attended Lady Margaret Hall and Oxford University where she studied classical history and philosophy. She later married Oxford professor and politician, the seventh Earl of Longford in 1931, with whom she had eight children. She worked as a tutor from 1930-36 in the Worker\'s Educational Association, and was a member of the Paddington and St. Pomcras Rent Tribunal from 1946-5
Software Piracy Software piracy is the failure of a licensed user to adhere to the conditions of a software license or the unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted software by a person or entity that has not been licensed to use the software. Software piracy has become a household word and a household crime and has had a great affect on the software industry. It is a problem that can only be solved by the choices of each individual. The computer software industry is one of the great busin
Charles Darwin Charles Robert Darwin was a British scientist who laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his views on life development through natural selection. He was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England, on February 12, 1809. After graduating from the elite school at Shrewsbury in 1825, Darwin attended the University of Edinburgh where he studied medicine. In 1827 he dropped out and entered the University of Cambridge in preparation for becoming a clergyman of the Church of
Charles Dickens INTRODUCTION This report will talk about the life of a famous author, Charles Dickens. It will tell you about his early, middle, and later years of his life. It will also talk about one of his great works of literature. In conclusion, this report will show a comparison of his work to his life. EARLY LIFE Charles Dickens was born at Landport, in Portsea, on February 7, 1812. His father was a clerk in the Navy Pay-Office, and was temporarily on duty in the neighborhood when Charles
Charles Lindbergh Shortly after Charles Lindbergh landed, he was swarmed by 25,000 Parisians who carried the wearied pilot on their shoulders. They were rejoicing that Charles Lindbergh, the American aviator who flew the first transatlantic flight, had just landed at Le Bourget field in France. Having just completed what some people called an impossible feat, he was instantly a well-known international hero. Despite his pro-German stance during World War II, Charles Lindbergh is also an American
Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe was a bizarre and often scary writer. People throughout history have often wondered why his writings were so fantastically different and unusual. They were not the result of a diseased mind, as some think. Rather they came from a tense and miserable life. Edgar Allan Poe was not a happy man. He was a victim of fate from the moment he was born to his death only forty years later. He died alone and unappreciated. It is quite obvious that his life affected his writin
Elizabeth Cady Stanton I was once called the most dangerous woman in America because I dared to ask for the unthinkable- the right to vote. I challenged my culture\'s basic assumptions about men and women, and dedicated my life to the pursuit of equal rights for all women. My name is Elizabeth Cady Stanton. I was born in Johnstown, New York, on the 12th of November, 1815. My father is the prominent attorney and judge Daniel Cady and my mother is Margaret Livingston Cady. I was born the seventh c
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a recently recognized disease. It is caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which attacks selected cells in the IMMUNE SYSTEM and produces defects in function. These defects may not be apparent for years. They lead, however, to a severe suppression of the immune system\'s ability to resist harmful organisms. This leaves the body open to invasion by various infections, which are therefor
Acupuncture As An Alternative Medicine In The Western Culture Debora Cytrynowicz Acupuncture as an Alternative Medicine ( in the Western Culture) Alternative medicine is a very general term whose definition can be very controversial. Basically, it is many holistic techniques for preventing and treating illnesses. Acupuncture, and many other therapies, have long been a part of Asian cultures and have recently been integrated into the Western culture. Since Acupuncture is such an important traditi
Alzheimers Disease ALZHEIMER’S 1 Alzheimer’s Disease Katrina Lindsey Florida Atlantic University Advanced CPR John Picarello March 18, 2000 ALZHEIMER’S 2 Alzheimer’s disease is a complex illness that affects the brain tissue directly and undergoes gradual memory and behavioral changes which makes it difficult to diagnose. It is known to be the most common form of dementia and is irreversible. Over four million older Americans have Alzheimer’s, and that number is expected to triple in the next tw
Arthritis Arthritis is a general term for approximately 100 diseases that produce either INFLAMMATION of connective tissues, particularly in joints, or noninflammatory degeneration of these tissues. The word means joint inflammation, but because other structures are also affected, the diseases are often called connective tissue diseases. The terms rheumatism and rheumatic diseases are also used. Besides conditions so named, the diseases include gout, lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis,
Atlantis, A Lost Continent Introduction. Atlantis was a continent of the Atlantic Ocean where, according to Plato, an advanced civilization developed some 11,600 years ago. Plato affirms that, as the result of a huge volcanic cataclysm of worldwide extent, this continent sunk away underseas, disappearing forever. Official Science - the one you learn at school - rejects the actual existence of Atlantis, as it has so far been unable to find any traces of its reality. But the reason for that is sim
Biology Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialities may be oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. BOTANY is concerned with plant life, ZOOLOGY with animal life, algology with ALGAE, MYCOLOGY with fungi, MICROBIOLOGY with microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria, CYTOLOGY with CELLS, and so on. All biological specialties, however, are concerned with l
Bipolar Disorder Bipolar Disorder The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. Bipolar disorder or as the alternate names, manic depressive illness or affective bipolar disorder can be classified as a mood disorder characterized by mood swings from manis (exaggerated feeing of well-being) to depression. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It
Birth Control The practice of birth control prevents conception, thus limiting reproduction. The term birth control, coined by Margaret SANGER in 1914, usually refers specifically to methods of contraception, including STERILIZATION. The terms family planning and planned parenthood have a broader application. METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL Attempts to control fertility have been going on for thousands of years. References to preventing conception are found in the writings of priests, philosophers, and
Blindness The term blindness implies total or partial loss of vision involving both eyes. The exact level of vision defined as blindness, however, varies in different countries because of differing legal or social requirements. In the United States, blindness is defined as unimprovable vision of 20/200 (6/60) or worse. This means that an individual is generally considered blind who, even with the use of ordinary eyeglasses, can see no better at 20 ft (6 m) than a person with normal vision can se
Censorship on the Internet During the past decade, our society has become based solely on the ability to move large amounts of information across large distances quickly. Computerization has influenced everyone\'s life. The natural evolution of computers and this need for ultra-fast communications has caused a global network of interconnected computers to develop. This global net allows a person to send E-mail across the world in mere fractions of a second, and enables even the common person to
Cannibis Sativa Throughout history marijuana has been used to serve various purposes in many different cultures. The purposes have changed over time to fit in with the current lifestyles. This pattern is also true in American history. The use of marijuana has adapted to the social climate of the time. Marijuana, whose scientific name is cannibis sativa, was mentioned in historical manuscripts as early as 2700 B. C. in China. (Grolier Electronic Encyclopedia, 1995). The cultivation of the marijua
Colorado River Geographers can tell you that the one thing that most rivers and their adjacent flood plains in the world have in common is that they have rich histories associated with human settlement and development. This especially true in arid regions which are very dependent upon water. Two excellent examples are the Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates rivers which show use the relationship between rivers and concentrations of people. However, the Colorado River is not such a good example along m
Earthquakes I chose to research earthquakes and the prediction of earthquakes because I was curious as to how they work. In this paper, I will discus the history of earthquakes, the kinds and locations of earthquakes, earthquake effects, intensity scales, prediction, and my own predictions. An earthquake can be defined as vibrations produced in the earth\'s crust. Tectonic plates have friction between them which builds up as it tries to push away and suddenly ruptures and then rebounds. The vibr
Enviormentalism Evironmentalism: The Next Step Broad Social Change Through Personal Commitment Introduction In the last thirty years, America has witnessed an environmental revolution. New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. Social phenomena like Earth Day, organized by Dennis Hayes in 1970, and the beginning of large-scale recycling, marked by Oregon\'s 1972 Bottle Bill, have help change the way Americans think a
Computers Only once in a lifetime will a new invention come about to touch every aspect of our lives. Such a device that changes the way we work, live, and play is a special one, indeed. A machine that has done all this and more now exists in nearly every business in the US and one out of every two households. This incredible invention is the computer. The electronic computer has been around for over a half-century, but its ancestors have been around for 2000 years. However, only in the last 40
Genetic Engineering, History And FutureAltering The Face Of Science Science is a creature that continues to evolve at a much higher rate than the beings that gave it birth. The transformation time from tree-shrew, to ape, to human far exceeds the time from analytical engine, to calculator, to computer. But science, in the past, has always remained distant. It has allowed for advances in production, transportation, and even entertainment, but never in history will science be able to so deeply aff
Gut Issues We share many experiences with the kings of old: pastries, for instance, and home entertainment and vacation trips to far-off lands. Ancient-day common folk knew nothing of such things. Then again, they weren\'t constipated... We are. Not all of us, of course. But enough Canadians so that some doctors call our a constipated society. And even if you\'re not constipated, your present day diet may be leading you to more serious complaints like disorders of the large intestine or colon. T
How Aids Has Affected Our Society Today more Americans are infected with STD\'s than at any other time in history. The most serious of these diseases is AIDS. Since the first cases were identified in the United States in 1981, AIDS has touched the lives of millions of American families. This deadly disease is unlike any other in modern history. Changes in social behavior can be directly linked to AIDS. Its overall effect on society has been dramatic. It is unknown whether AIDS and HIV existed an
Computer Crime Laws must be passed to address the increase in the number and types of computer crimes. Over the last twenty years, a technological revolution has occurred as computers are now an essential element of today\'s society. Large computers are used to track reservations for the airline industry, process billions of dollars for banks, manufacture products for industry, and conduct major transactions for businesses because more and more people now have computers at home and at the office
Life Until recently, scientists believed that the sole source of energy responsible for life on earth was the sun. In 1977, a group of scientists researching the theory of plate tectonics, traveled to the floor of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and discovered something that could possibly explain how life began on this planet. From the Galapagos Rift\'s thermal springs, scientists discovered densely populated communities of several species never before observed. Since that time the Federal Governm
MArijuana Beatriz Lama Pérez Marjory Hutchinson ENG – 190 9 December 1999 Legalization of Marijuana For many years the use of marijuana for medical purposes has been an issue of controversial discussion. Many claim that marijuana is a drug that has proven itself to be of no medical value in the treatment of terminal illnesses. Those who feel this way, usually ignore the long history of marijuana’s medical uses; a history that goes back thousands of years ago. The drug has aided many people with
Nationalism In The Global Village INTRODUCTION With the dawning of the information age there has been a shrinking of relative distances between people and places all over the world. With an increase in international communication comes an increase in cultural sharing. Cultures all over the planet reflect influences of neighboring cultures and other international trading partners. As these and many other factors work towards creating a global village many people are baffled by the increase in nat
Nutrition “You are what you eat”, goes a famous saying. If that’s truly the case, then a lot of Americans would appear to be unhealthy, chemically treated, commercially raised slabs of animal flesh. While that is not a particularly pleasant thought, it is nonetheless a description of the typical American omnivore who survives on the consumption of big macs and greasy french fries. It’s true, and what have the average Americans done about this problem? Asked for seconds and tell themselves that t
Skin Cancer Gone are the days when people sent children outside to play to get a little color in their cheeks. They know too much about the dangers of unprotected sun exposure and the threat of skin cancer. Or do they? Despite the fact that 58% of parents remembered hearing about the importance of protecting their children from the sun, children are still playing in the sun without sunscreen or protective clothing (3., p 1). Sunburn is the most preventable risk factor of skin cancer. Skin type a
SLEEP APNEA SLEEP APNEA What is Sleep Apnea? The Greek word apnea literally means without breath. There are three types of sleep apnea: obstructive, central, and mixed; of the three, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is the most common. Despite the difference in the root cause of each type, in all three, people with untreated sleep apnea stop breathing repeatedly during their sleep, sometimes hundreds of times during the night and often for a minute or longer. Obstructive sleep apnea is caused by a