Your Bones in Space Essay

This essay has a total of 1336 words and 7 pages.

Your Bones in Space

ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCE

Hypogravitational Osteoporosis: A review of literature.
By Lambert Titus Parker. May 19 1987.

Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by an absolute decrease in the
amount of bone present to a level below which it is capable of maintaining
the structural integrity of the skeleton.

To state the obvious, Human beings have evolved under Earth's gravity
"1G". Our musculoskeleton system have developed to help us navigate in
this gravitational field, endowed with ability to adapt as needed under
various stress, strains and available energy requirement. The system
consists of Bone a highly specialized and dynamic supporting tissue which
provides the vertebrates its rigid infrastructure. It consists of specialized
connective tissue cells called osteocytes and a matrix consisting of
organic fibers held together by an organic cement which gives bone its
tenacity, elasticity and its resilience. It also has an inorganic component
located in the cement between the fibers consisting of calcium phosphate
[85%]; Calcium carbonate [10%] ; others [5%] which give it the hardness
and rigidity. Other than providing the rigid infrastructure, it protects
vital organs like the brain], serves as a complex lever system, acts as a
storage area for calcium which is vital for human metabolism, houses the
bone marrow within its mid cavity and to top it all it is capable of changing
its architecture and mass in response to outside and inner stress. It
is this dynamic remodeling of bone which is of primary interest in microgravity.
To feel the impact of this dynamicity it should be noted that a bone
remodeling unit [a coupled phenomena of bone reabsorption and bone formation]
is initiated and another finished about every ten seconds in a healthy
adult. This dynamic system responds to mechanical stress or lack of it
by increasing the bone mass/density or decreasing it as per the demand
on the system. -eg; a person dealing with increased mechanical stress
will respond with increased mass / density of the bone and a person who
leads a sedentary life will have decreased mass/density of bone but the right
amount to support his structure against the mechanical stresses she/she
exists in. Hormones also play a major role as seen in postmenopausal
females osteoporosis (lack of estrogens) in which the rate of bone reformation
is usually normal with the rate of bone re-absorption increased.

In Skeletal system whose mass represent a dynamic homeostasis in 1g weight-
bearing,when placed in microgravity for any extended period of time requiring
practically no weight bearing, the regulatory system of bone/calcium
reacts by decreasing its mass. After all, why carry all that extra mass
and use all that energy to maintain what is not needed? Logically the
greatest loss -demineralization- occurs in the weight bearing bones of
the leg [Os Calcis] and spine. Bone loss has been estimated by calcium-balance
studies and excretion studies. An increased urinary excretion of calcium
, hydroxyproline & phosphorus has been noted in the first 8 to 10 days
of microgravity suggestive of increased bone re-absorption. Rapid increase
of urinary calcium has been noted after takeoff with a plateau reached
by day 30. In contrast, there was a steady increase off mean fecal calcium
throughout the stay in microgravity and was not reduced until day 20 of
return to 1 G while urinary calcium content usually returned to preflight
level by day 10 of return to 1G.

There is also significant evidence derived primarily from rodent studies that
seem to suggest decreased bone formation as a factor in hypogravitational
osteoporosis. Boy Frame,M.D a member of NASA's LifeScience Advisory Committee
[LSAC] postulated that "the initial pathologic event after the astronauts
enter zero gravity occurs in the bone itself, and that changes in mineral
homeostasis and the calcitropic hormones are secondary to this. It appears
that zero gravity in some ways stimulate bone re-absorption, possibly through
altered bioelectrical fields or altered distribution of tension and pressure
on bone cells themselves. It is possible that gravitational and muscular
strains on the skeletal system cause friction between bone crystals
Continues for 4 more pages >>




  • Nostradamus And A Grim Future
    Nostradamus And A Grim Future Nostradamus and a Grim Future by Mookypj English II pre-AP period 1 11/4/96 Outline I. Introduction A. Thesis sentence B. Marc Hopkins opinion on the validity of Nostradamus\'s predictions II. Background information on Nostradamus A. Source of Nostradamus\'s education B. Nostradamus\'s trip to Montpellier C. Tragedies strike Nostradamus 1. Plague comes to town and kills Nostradamus\'s family 2. Nostradamus\'s late wife\'s family sues him 3. Comment to workman result
  • Struggling Dreams
    Struggling Dreams Several poems attempt to address social and political issues. In several of Langston Hughes’s poems, he expresses sociopolitical protests. He portrayed people whose lives were impacted by racism and sexual conflicts, he wrote about southern violence, Harlem street life, poverty, prejudice, hunger, hopelessness. Hughes’s poem a “Dream Deferred” was published in 1951. The poem speculated about the consequences of white’s society’s withholding of equal opportunity. The title of Lo
  • The Amazing Pyramids in Egypt
    The Amazing Pyramids in Egypt Eleven years ago my family and I went on vacation to Egypt. The Sphinx, the three Pyramids of Giza, and the Step Pyramid of Pharaoh Zoser towered more than two hundred feet above the golden Egyptian sands like mountains. The sight took my breath away, and that of course was one of their purposes. To a three foot tall, six year old the buildings seemed to be as big as the world. I nearly broke my neck when I tried to glance at the top. When the people of Egypt first
  • Who Pushed Merlin
    Who Pushed Merlin The most important and knowledgeable people in history are not born with their talents or contributions. They, as everyone does, need a person to give them the option and the encouragement to achieve their fate. In The Crystal Cave, Mary Stewart portrays the life of Merlin, the main character, as he grows into a reputable individual of the time. Merlin begins his childhood as a boy who not many care for. Through the help of some important people, such as Tremorinus, Galapas, an
  • My Vision of Tomorrow
    My Vision of Tomorrow Tomorrow\'s world will be much different and also, much better in many ways. We will have developed much better technology. We will have made huge medical advancements. The general quality of life will be much better, and living will also have become much easier. Still, nothing can ever be perfect, and in a world of the future, we will experience many complex and unavoidable problems such as depletion of resources, overpopulation, and the threat of nuclear and biological wa
  • My Vision of Tommorrow
    My Vision of Tommorrow Submitted to the Cheat House By: Jupin (I perfer to leave my name unknown) My Vision of Tomorrow Tomorrow\'s world will be much different and also, much better in many ways. We will have developed much better technology. We will have made huge medical advancements. The general quality of life will be much better, and living will also have become much easier. Still, nothing can ever be perfect, and in a world of the future, we will experience many complex and unavoidable pr
  • Population And Food
    Population And Food The United Nations projects that the global population, currently at 6 billion, will peak at about 10 billion in the next century and then stabilize or even decline. (popindex.Princeton.edu) A question immediately following the statement, can the Earth feed that many people? It is understood that even if food crops increase sufficiently, other renewable resources, including many fisheries and forests, are already under pressure. Our food production doubled from 1961 to 1994,
  • Population Overgrowth
    Population Overgrowth Image this: One day, you wake up and 240,000 more people are living in your mansion. It is a big mansion with normally ample supplies to sustain your lifestyle. However, with 240,000 more people inhabiting that same area, it has become cramped and small. The next day, 240,000 people more come to live with you. This happens everyday for many years, soon supplies start to stretch thin and space starts to be a rarity. Unfortunately, this is not fiction. It is reality. Everyday
  • Wavelength of 10 or Higher and 11 down. Gamma Rays
    Wavelength of 10 or Higher and 11 down. Gamma Rays are produced in labs Gamma Rays are Waves on the electromagnetic Spectrum that have a Wavelength of 10 or Higher and 11 down. Gamma Rays are produced in labs through the process of nuclear collision and also through the artificial Radioactivity that accompanies these interactions. The high energy nuclei needed for the collisions are accelerated by such devices such as the Cyclotron and synchrotron. There are also many uses for Gamma rays in Medi
  • An Argument For Animal Research
    An Argument For Animal Research English 103 Paper #1 Animal Rights Medicine has come a very long way since the days when men used to puncture holes into the skull to release tension or evil spirits. In the last one hundred years, for the sake of humanity, numerous vaccinations have been developed, disease and disorders of all types have been prevented, surgical techniques have been advanced, drugs have been developed to cure ailments and the list continues endlessly. The progress that has been a
  • The Application of Fractal Geometry to Ecology
    The Application of Fractal Geometry to Ecology Principles of Ecology 310L Victoria Levin 7 December 1995 Abstract New insights into the natural world are just a few of the results from the use of fractal geometry. Examples from population and landscape ecology are used to illustrate the usefulness of fractal geometry to the field of ecology. The advent of the computer age played an important role in the development and acceptance of fractal geometry as a valid new discipline. New insights gained
  • The Results of Aging
    The Results of Aging Prepared for Ms. Ferguson Mark Trolley Abstract This report presents several aspects of aging. The report looks at a number of theories of why we age, the physical and mental changes we undergo as we age, and several ways of caring for the elderly. TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.............................................iii INTRODUCTION......................................................1 THEORIES OF WHY WE AGE............................................2 Geneti
  • Asimov On Chemistry by Isaac Asimov
    Asimov On Chemistry by Isaac Asimov The Book Asimov on Chemistry by Isaac Asimov is a collection of seventeen essays that he wrote for The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction. This book is one of ten that were published by Doubleday & Company, Inc. Not all of the books centered on chemistry and like science. Most just covered anything Isaac Asimov wondered about. These Essays date back quite aways with a range from January 1959 to April 1966. INORGANIC CHEMISTRY The Weighting Game This i fou
  • Nuclear Legacy
    Nuclear Legacy "There is 10 thousand tons of nuclear waste on Earth." Many scientist are in search for new and efficient ways to dispose of these lethal by-products which can destroy life itself. Radioactive products can be either beneficial or devastating. It all depends on how we use them. In the field of medicine, some benefit from radiation include, radiation therapy for cancer patients. Not all uses of radiation prove to be beneficial. Many use the power of the atom for destructive purposes
  • Robert Boyle
    Robert Boyle Robert Boyle is considered both the founder of modern chemistry and the greatest English scientist to live during the first thirty years of the existence of the Royal Society. He was not only a chemist and a physicist as we know him to be, but also an avid theologian, a philanthropist, an essayist, and a beginner in medicine. Born in Lismore, Ireland to Richard Boyle, first earl of Cork, and Katherine Fenton, his second wife, Boyle was the youngest son in a family of fourteen. Howev
  • Carl Gustav Jung
    Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the school of analytical psychology. He proposed and developed the concepts of the extroverted and introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. The issues that he dealt with arose from his personal experiences. For many years Jung felt as if he had two separate personalities. One introverted while the other was extroverted. This interplay results in his study of integration and wholeness. His work h
  • Eating Disorders
    Eating Disorders Imagine a thirteen-year-old girl who weighs 60 pounds because she is starving herself. Every time she looks in the mirror, she sees herself as fat. Picture her parents watching their daughter literally disintegrating into thin air. This is the life of a family dealing with an eating disorder. Eating disorders are a major problem with the young people of today\'s society. While anorexia and bulimia are sociological problems plaguing the world\'s youth, there are also other eating
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
    Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is made up of six different types of waves. Radio waves, Microwaves, Infrared waves, Visible light, Ultraviolet light, X-rays and Gamma rays. The radio waves are used to transmit radio and television signals. The infrared waves are used to tell temperature of areas. Visible light is all the colors that we can see. Ultraviolet light can help things grow but to much can cause diseases such as skin cancer. X-rays are used as a tool to find broke
  • Gene Manipulation
    Gene Manipulation Throughout time, man has always questioned science. Man has been curious about life, space, our bodies, and our existence. Man has gone as far as to the moon, and cloning. Everyday there are new developments being researched. Along with these developments come the people’s opinion. Many people question the positive outcomes and negative outcomes of procedures such as gene manipulation, cloning, in vitro fertilization and fetal tissue implants. To this day, scientists are resear
  • Hypogravitational Osteoporosis
    Hypogravitational Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by an absolute decrease in the amount of bone present to a level below which it is capable of maintaining the structural integrity of the skeleton. To state the obvious, Human beings have evolved under Earth\'s gravity 1G . Our musculoskeleton system have developed to help us navigate in this gravitational field, endowed with ability to adapt as needed under various stress, strains and available energy requirement. The system
  • Lasers
    Lasers When most people see a laser beam they are amazed by its unique physical properties. Laser light is so unique from other light because it is coherent; unlike ordinary light, which travels in all directions, laser light travels in a straight beam. The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The history of the laser is very interesting. Lasers have changed immensely since they were first invented. Before the laser was invented, Charles Townes de
  • MArijuana
    MArijuana Beatriz Lama Pérez Marjory Hutchinson ENG – 190 9 December 1999 Legalization of Marijuana For many years the use of marijuana for medical purposes has been an issue of controversial discussion. Many claim that marijuana is a drug that has proven itself to be of no medical value in the treatment of terminal illnesses. Those who feel this way, usually ignore the long history of marijuana’s medical uses; a history that goes back thousands of years ago. The drug has aided many people with
  • Science; Rainforests And Earth
    Science; Rainforests And Earth The Tropical Rainforests of the World In this term paper, I will explain the great importance of the tropical Rainforests around the world and discuss the effects of the tragedy of rainforest destruction and the effect that it is having on the earth. I will talk about the efforts being made to help curb the rate of rainforest destruction and the peoples of the rainforest, and I will explore a new topic in the fight to save the rainforest, habitat fragmentation. Ano
  • INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
    INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Oliver Lines BABS 2 – Option Managing Information Systems In Organisations RECENT ADVANCES IN SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT WILL RADICALLY CHANGE THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an abundance of new technologies in the information systems field. These new technologies have altered the very development process itself. Information systems have gone from being a series of one level databases to three dimensional r
  • The Internet
    The Internet The Internet: its effects and its future written by Eva Kotsi Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people\'s homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie in a co
  • The internet
    The internet The Internet: its effects and its future Essay written by Eva Kotsi Internet, its effects in our lives and the future of the Internet: The Internet is, quite literally, a network of networks. It is comprised of ten thousands of interconnected networks spanning the globe. The computers that form the Internet range from huge mainframes in research establishments to modest PCs in people\'s homes and offices. Despite the recent hype, the Internet is not a new phenomenon. Its roots lie i
  • Birth Order
    Birth Order Does birth order have an effect on personality? Does being first born make people more responsible? If someone is the middle born child, are they going to be more rebellious? If people are last born are they more likely to be on television? Are first born children inconsiderate and selfish or reliable and highly motivated? These, and many other questions are being thoroughly studied by psychologists (Harrigan, 1992). In 1923, the renowned psychiatrist Dr. Alfred Adler, wrote that a p
  • Eating Disorders
    Eating Disorders Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa: A condition characterized by intense fear of gaining weight or becoming obese, as well as a distorted body image, leading to an excessive weight loss from restricting food intake and excessive exercise. Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder in which persistent overconcern with the body weight and shape leads to repeat episodes of bingeing (consuming large amounts of food in a short time) associated with induced vomiting. Those are the clinical de
  • The History Of The Internet
    The History Of The Internet The History of the Internet Greg Rice 4/25/00 The Internet has update the computer and communications world like nothing before. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information distribution, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geog
  • Is Marijuana Dangerous to your Physical Health?
    Is Marijuana Dangerous to your Physical Health? Recreational use of marijuana has been going on for many years, and like cigarettes many people refuse to listen to health reports. More and more reports are coming out on the effects of marijuana on the body. Just how harmful marijuana can be is questionable. Some health reports state that it is very detrimental to the body while others are explaining how chemicals extracted from the marijuana plant are being used as medication. The problem is, ju
  • Legalization of Marijana: For
    Legalization of Marijana: For It\'s time we put to rest the myth that smoking marijuana is a fringe or deviant activity, engaged in only by those on the margins of American society. In reality, marijuana smoking is extremely common, and marijuana is the recreational drug of choice for millions of mainstream, middle class Americans. According to the most recent NIDA data1, between 65 and 71 million Americans have smoked marijuana at some time in their lives, and 10 million are current smokers (ha
  • Spiritual Healing
    Spiritual Healing An Exploration of Spiritual Healing Throughout time, mankind has constantly been seeking ways to maintain their health and to cure those that had not been so fortunate in that task. Just about everything has been experimented with as a cure for some type of illness; whether physical or mental. There is also a third type of illness that can and is addressed, which is healing on the spiritual plan. According to research, most of the spiritual healers are concentrated in primitive
  • 1960's
    1960\'s   Many social changes that were addressed in the 1960s are still the issues being confronted today. the \'60s was a decade of social and political upheaval. in spite of all the turmoil, there were some positive results: the civil rights revolution, john f. Kennedy\'s bold vision of a new frontier, and the breathtaking advances in space, helped bring about progress and prosperity. however, much was negative: student and anti-war protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riot
  • Immigration Into Canada
    Immigration Into Canada Abstract This paper is concerned with the recent wave of Hong Kong immigrants into Vancouver. The stage is set for this discussion by first explaining some background behind Canadian immigration policy and then discussing the history of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. From these discussions we are informed that Canadian immigration policy was historically ethnocentric and only began to change in the late 1960s. It was at this point that we see a more multicultural group
  • The Seminole
    The Seminole "As the United States is a nation made up of people from many nations, so the Seminole is a tribe made up of Indians from many tribes."  (Garbarino 13)  The Seminole are the indigenous people living in southeastern America.  They lived in what is now Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Mississippi.  The Seminole had a Muskogean language of the Hokan-Siouan stock.  (Bookshelf)  The Indian tribes found in the southeast were the Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, C
  • Ehrlich's Population Bomb
    Ehrlich\'s Population Bomb "People are realizing that we cannot forever continue to multiply and subdue the earth without losing our standard of life and the natural beauty that must be part of it. these are the years of decision- the decision of men to stay the flood of man." Ehrlich here explains the one of the most pressing problems facing man in the 20th century. In Population Bomb, Ehrlich explains that pollution, shortages, and an overall deterioation of the standard of living is all due t
  • Galileo
    Galileo Galileo was that guy who invented the telescope. This is what most people say when they think about Galileo. However, Galileo did not even invent the telescope; he only made improvements to it so it could be used for astronomy. Galileo did use it to make many important discoveries about astronomy, though; many of these discoveries helped to prove that the sun was the center of the galaxy. Galileo also made many important contributions to Physics; he discovered that the path of a projecti
  • Hong Kong Immigrants in Vancouver- Uneasy Partners
    Hong Kong Immigrants in Vancouver- Uneasy Partnership Abstract This paper is concerned with the recent wave of Hong Kong immigrants into Vancouver. The stage is set for this discussion by first explaining some background behind Canadian immigration policy and then discussing the history of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. From these discussions we are informed that Canadian immigration policy was historically ethnocentric and only began to change in the late 1960s. It was at this point that we s
  • Nazi
    Nazi Sitting on an operating table, deep inside the corridors of Azchwitz concentration camp, a man is listening to the Nazi gun fire outside. He hears the innocent screams as automatic weapons mow through crowds of families deemed unfit to live . Gradually silence falls, only to be broken again by the solitary pops of a pistol, finishing of those who did not die right off. It should be a sickening feeling for this man, he should feel anger and hate, and sadness for these newest additions to the
  • Seminoles
    Seminoles         "As the United States is a nation made up of people from many nations, so the Seminole is a tribe made up of Indians from many tribes."  (Garbarino 13)  The Seminole are the indigenous people living in southeastern America.  They lived in what is now Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Mississippi.  The Seminole had a Muskogean language of the Hokan-Siouan stock.  (Bookshelf)  The Indian tribes found in the southeast were the Creek, Choctaw, Chickas
  • Down's Syndrome
    Down\'s Syndrome Down\'s syndrome is a genetic condition involving an extra chromosome, this change occurs around the time of conception. A person with Down\'s syndrome has forty-seven chromosomes instead of the usual forty-six. A relatively common genetic disorder, Down\'s strikes 1 out of 600 babies. In 95 percent of all cases, the disorder originates with the egg, not the sperm, and the only known risk factor is advanced maternal age-at age 35, a woman has 1 chance in 117 of having a baby wit
  • Ancient Egypt
    Ancient Egypt The giant pyramids, temples, and tombs of ancient Egypt tell an exciting story about a nation that rose to power more than 5,000 years ago. This mighty civilization crumbled before conquering armies after 2,500 years of triumph and glory. The dry air and drifting desert sands have preserved many records of ancient Egypt until modern times. The ancient Egyptians lived colorful, active, and eventful lives. Many were creative artists, skilled craftsmen, and adventurous explorers. Bold
  • Down syndrome
    Down syndrome Down\'s syndrome is a genetic condition involving an extra chromosome, this change occurs around the time of conception. A person with Down\'s syndrome has forty-seven chromosomes instead of the usual forty-six. A relatively common genetic disorder, Down\'s strikes 1 out of 600 babies. In 95 percent of all cases, the disorder originates with the egg, not the sperm, and the only known risk factor is advanced maternal age-at age 35, a woman has 1 chance in 117 of having a baby with D
  • ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH
    ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH An abbreviation is a shorter way to write a word or phrase. People use abbreviations for words that they write a lot. The English language often uses the apostrophe mark \' to show that a word is written in a shorter way, but some abbreviations do not use this mark. Some abbreviations use the period mark, especially the ones that come from the Latin language. Some examples of common English abbreviations are don\'t for do not , shouldn\'t for should not , etc. for et cet
  • The Scarlet Letter
    The Scarlet Letter Chapter 1 A prison door is surrounded by a group of Puritan settlers. They are dressed in dark, simple clothing, and wear serious expressions. Just to the side of the door is a single wild rose bush, covered with flowers because it is June, rose season: [O]n one side of the portal, and rooted almost at the threshold, was a wild rose-bush, covered, in this month of June, with its delicate gems, which might be imagined to offer their fragrance and fragile beauty to the prisoner
  • Where I am…@#%*
    Where I am…@#%* …Bank of China Tower Bank of China Tower, known as the tallest building in Hong Kong and Asia from 1989 to 1992, is 1,209-foot and it is a fitting building. The Tower sits in the central business district, a ribbon of land densely packed with banks and office buildings squeezed between mountain and harbor. It is one of the busiest, crowded, active, frenetic cities in the world. After experiencing it, I was attracted by its visual context and its special features, as this modern b
  • ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder)
    ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder) Predominantly Inattentiveness Introduction to Special Education Notes: o Even though the scientific term is ADHD there are some that refers to it as ADD with the different subtypes. o ADHD predominantly inattentiveness is still known by many people as ADD, even though that is not the right term. o In places where ADHD is mentioned alone in the paper, the research is about ADHD as a whole. Introduction Most of us have heard of the term Attention Defi
  • An Analysis of Heart of Darkness
    An Analysis of Heart of Darkness Conrad\'s novel, Heart of Darkness, relies on the historical period of imperialism in order to describe its protagonist, Charlie Marlow, and his struggle. Marlow\'s catharsis in the novel, as he goes to the Congo, rests on how he visualises the effects of imperialism. Marlow\'s change, as caused by his exposure to the imperialistic nature of the historical period in which he lived is one of the main concerns of our study.Because, Joseph Conrad develops themes of
  • The Right of Religious Freedom
    The Right of Religious Freedom During our class on Federal Policy we have been discussing the idea of the rights of Native Americans. While doing me research I came across on the underlining freedoms that everyone should process, the freedom of Religion. This freedom is so important in regards to Native Americans because it not only allows them to worship but defines their culture as well. I have decided to focus on just the American Indian Freedom Act of 1978 and it progression through time. R
  • Discuss the causes of psychological disturbances i
    Discuss the causes of psychological disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. In order to address the above the request it is important to define Parkinson’s disease; it’s known causes and main physiological symptoms. Many sufferers of PD experience cognitive and mental dysfunctions from a long list. The causes of such deficits are being debated to a great extent. There is no clear conclusion that states they are caused by chemical changes in the brain associated with PD or if the stressors of living