What are the effects of migration? Essay

This essay has a total of 1155 words and 9 pages.

What are the effects of migration?


In our days migration is becoming uncontrolled problem which has unpleasant consequences,
especially to the economy and social structure of the country. In spite of the fact that
countries are doing their best to solve the problem of migration, but it still remains one
of the key problem to which there is no easy solution. Migration slows down the economy
and causes terrible effects such as increased pollution and unemployment.



What is migration? “Migration is the movement of people, especially of whole groups, from
one place, region, or country to another, particularly with the intention of making
permanent settlement in a new location” (Encarta encyclopedia / 2004). And there are a
number of reasons why people migrate. The main reasons causing migration is the
followings: people living in the countries regard large cities as a more desirable place
to live (especially in undeveloped and developing countries), the supply of social
services such as education and health service are not the same everywhere, low income in
rural locations, poverty and others. These reasons would “push”(“push factor”) people from
rural or poor countries to more developed regions or countries. There is also “pull
factor”(opportunities for education, marriage or job opportunities) which attracts labour
towards large cities or countries. An instance for “pull”ing workforce can be Japan, where
local people do not want to work for low salaries (In Japan low wage may be considerably
higher for people migrated from less developed counties) or in very dangerous jobs. That
is why such countries prefer to hire employees from other countries rather than local
labour.



As it was stated above, a lot of people move to a particular area with various reasons.
And this is as you know migration which has terrible consequences. First of all, it
affects on the increase of pollution in small towns. The accumulation of people in one
place makes them (towns) to expand; on the other hand these small towns become large
cities. And thus, the pollution increases since researches have shown that if in one area
the



population becomes more than fifty thousand people this place is considered to be highly
polluted. An example for this can be any developing country where population and
productivity have rapid increase.



Second of all, people who migrate from rural places to large cities in order to get a job
with higher earnings can cause unemployment. The population rises in urban regions. “The
rapidly expanding urban areas are characterized by many writers as “parasitic” development
in so far as they absorb a large volume of resources, financial, physical and human but
make only a limited contribution to the development effort (their “generative” capacity)”
(Colman D., Nixon F. / 1986). And certainly the jobs for everyone are not enough.
According to Lewis (1954) if there is differential in salary between the rural and urban
areas the migration will continue until this gap disappears (Colman D., Nixon F. / 1986).
Typical evidence for the case of unemployment can be the cities of India (Bombay,
Calcutta, Madras and etc.) to where people moved from the rural areas and Pakistan in hope
of getting a job with higher salary but only increased poverty and unemployment rate in
these cities.



Thirdly, not only developed, but developing countries can suffer from migration. All the
developing countries might experience negative impacts, because of “brain drain” - the
loss of trained and educated people. Almost in all less developed countries the government
pays very little amount of money for educated individuals. Consequently, these people will
lose interest to their job and try to migrate to those countries where there are good
conditions in jobs and excellent income. And majority of them are doing so. For example,
according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) presently in the United
States there are more African engineers and scientists than in Africa itself. There is an
interesting fact that “brain drain” has cost Zambia approximately nine billion dollars in
potential growth. Besides, in India it is estimated that about one hundred thousand
qualified technology employees are going to migrate to the other countries in the nearest
future years. (Center for Strategic & International Studies / 2002).



Finally, there is a negative effect of migration on labour supply. Often uncontrolled
migration leads to an excess of labour supply in the cities which causes poverty and
forces people to do an informal kind of work activities (low-productivity activities)
which is really a sort of undesirable type of labour. For instance, selling things in the
streets, children watching cars and asking for money from their owners when they come back
and others. Such things occur almost in every country even sometimes in the developed
ones. Besides there is a big possibility of labour scarcity in the areas where migrants
came from which may also harmfully affect on agriculture.



To conclude from all above, one thing can be derived: there is more loss than profit when
people migrate. Certainly some people may not be agree with this statement saying that
migrants have also positive effects on the countries’ economy and social structure. But
usually, in my opinion, migration has negative impact on the countries in view of the fact
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