Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, Essay

This essay has a total of 1847 words and 12 pages.

Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, and Critical

Comment on the three types of sociological theories, explain and argue, based
on your library or Internet research, which type of theory is the most
appropriate theory for sociology to adopt.

The three general types of sociological theory are positivistic, interpretive
and critical theory.In determining which theory is the most appropriate for
sociology to adopt,a basic understanding of each theory's strengths and
weaknesses is necessary.In defining each of these theories, it is important to
determine the ontological basis orthe theory's basis for determining what is
knowable; the epistemological basis or the theory's relationship between the
knower and the knowable; and, finally, the methodological basis or the theory's
method for gathering data and obtaining knowledge.

A.POSITIVISTIC

1.Ontology.

The positivistic theory is based on an ontology ofbeing a realist.The realistic
slant of positivism is also known as determinism.The positivist knows that a
reality is "out there" to be defined and categorized.The hard sciences from the
time of Newton and Decartes have traditionally relied on the positivistic
approach.The positivist hopes to be able to approximate "reality" in a detailed
generalization or theory on how reality operates.The theories of a positivist
generallytake the form of cause and effect laws describing the outside
reality.Robert Merton defined these theorems as "clear verifiable statements of
the relationships between specified variables."

2.Epistemology.

Positivism relies onan objective epistemology.The observer remains distant and
does not interact with the observation or experiment.Values and any other
factors that might lead to bias are to be carefully removed so that the cold,
monological gaze of science can be used to analyze the data.The positivist is an
objectivist.

3.Methodology.

The methodology of positivism is experimental and manipulative. The approach is
the same as propounded in most junior high science classes:begin with a
hypothesis on how "reality" works, then gather data and test the data against
the hypothesis.The question propounded initially is tested against empirical
data gathered in the experiment under carefully controlled conditions.

B.INTERPRETIVE

1.Ontology.

The interpretivist ontology is relativism.The belief, unlike the positivist, is
that knowledge is relative to the observor.Reality is not something that exists
outside the observor, but rather is determined by the experiences, social
background and other factors of the observor.Because of this view sociological
law is not a constant, but a relationship between changing variables.

2.Epistemology.

The epistemology of interpretivism is the subjective.The inquirer in
interpretisim becomes part of an interaction or communication with the subject
of the inquiry.The findings are the result of the interaction between the
inquirer and the subject. Reality becomes a social construction.

3.Methodology.

The methodology ofinterpretivism can best be described as hermenutic or
dialectic.Hermenutics is the study of how to make interpretive inquiry.Dialectic
is reflective of the dialogue imagined in the subjective approach and the need
to test interpretive theory against human experience. Max Weber described the
methodology as "a science which aims at the interpretative understanding of
social conduct and thus at the explanation of its causes, its course, and its
effects."

Through hermenutics, the raw data consists of description.The description is
made through the naturally symbolic use of language.The meaning of the language
is derived in part by the society from which it arises.Interpretive theory is
tested by referring back to human practice within the society.If the interaction
produces the anticipated result then the theory is corroborated and vice versa.

C.CRITICAL THEORY

1.Ontology.

Criticalrealism is the ontology of critical theory.Critical realism believes
that a reality exists "out there" and is not merely relative.However, reality
can never be fully comprehended or understood.Natural laws still control and
drive realityand to the extent possible should be understood.

2.Epistemology.

Critical theory is value oriented.Therefore, the critical theorist is subjective
to the extent that the inquiries are governed and conducted in the context ofthe
values expounded by the theorist.

3.Methodology.

Critical theory has a transformative methodology.The answers provided should be
on how we should live.The status quo is critiqued and attacked.Actions are
criticized because of the result they will bring.The transformation is brought
about by making societal participants more aware of the language and the world
in which they live.By rallying members of society around a common, clear and
"true" point, societal injustice and exploitation can be eliminated.

POSITIVISM VERSUS INTERPRETIVISM

The positivistic approach is excellent for examining exterior data that can
essentially be utilized in an objective fashion.The positivist is an excellent
philosophy for viewing societal trends andchanges.The monological or scientific
gazeis limited in its perceptions and can best be used for determining when and
to what extent groups in the society interact.

The interpretivist, on the other hand, wants to know why things are happening in
a particular society.The subjective approach allows communication with the
cultural background of a society and an understanding of why things operate.

An illustration of how the two approaches differ can be seen by examining
something like the local Mormon baptism ritual for 8 year old children.The
positivist would tell percentages of children who participated in comparison to
the time the parents spent in church.The hypothesis may begin that a higher
percentage ofchildren would participate in the ritual if their parents were more
active in the religion.Data would be gathered and tested against the
hypothesis.The conclusion would be that the data confirmed the hypothesis and so
the conclusion could be reached that the more active the parents , the more
likely that the child would participate in the ritual.

The interpretivist would survey and examine why the children were baptized and
what the baptism meant to the participants.The final construct for the
interpretivist would be thatthe baptism signified a religious cleansing and a
new beginning and acted as a right of passage for the young children.

Both conclusions are correct, the results are vastly different.The positivist
looks at the exterior of society, while the interpretivist looks at the
interior.It is the difference between examining the electrical synapses in the
brain and knowing what someone is thinking.Both inquiries have there value, but
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