Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development: Youn Essay

This essay has a total of 1382 words and 7 pages.

Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development: Young Adults

The young adult has numerous stresses placed upon them through the route of
development. Erikson has theorised developmental stages of growth into tasks. Of
Eriksons' theoretical tasks, one task describes the theory of intimacy versus
isolation. This task theory can be examined using the normative crisis model.
The knowledge of developmental tasks of the young adult can be beneficial to the
nurse especially associated with their ability to relate to the young adult.

One of the stages in life is the young adult, which suggests significant changes
and an increase of responsibility. This stage of development is described as
between twenty and forty years, where "...the potential for furtherance of
intellectual, emotional and even physical development occurs". (Gething, 1995,
p.377). As people age the progress of the developmental stages can differ, so
they have formulated to assess the progression by using two principal crisis
models. The first, are the normative crisis model and the second includes the
timing of events crisis model. The normative crisis model has been powerful in
shaping the psychology of the developmental stages as it has allowed theorists
to imply that stages of development can follow an age related time sequence.
(Gething, 1995).

The normative crisis model suggests that human development has a built in
ground plan in which crisis as describe by Erikson are seen as a requirement
that must be resolved by the person before successful progression from one
developmental stage to another. Such achievement of this task crisis should
provide the young adult with the ability to challenge previous ideas held by the
adolescent about intimacy and isolation. This model is adapted for progression
of the tasks to follow the chronological age of the adult, while the related
social and emotional changes progress through a sequence that Erikson
characterises in to eight specific crisis tasks over the life span. (Kozier, erb,
blais & wilkinson, 1995.).

The second crisis model depends upon the timing of events and is not dependant
upon resolution of crisis or a ground plan, but stresses the importance of each
event that occur in the young adults life. Life events that proceed as expected
will encourage development, where as life events that are unexpected can result
in anxiety and a slow progression of development. (Gething, 1995.).

The young adult according to Erikson's theory of personality should be
progressing through the psychosocial crisis of intimacy versus isolation. The
tasks for this stage of life consist of courting and selecting a "mate",
marriage and associated choices, e.g. children and monogamous relationship,
career choices and lifestyle changes and furthering intellectual abilities to
accommodate choices. (Turner & Helms, 1987.). Some of the personal abilities
that the young adult must employ include decision making, career planing,
understanding nature of increased responsibility and being able to accommodate
greater demands of self.

Erikson's theory describes the crisis of the young adults developmental stage
being intimacy versus isolation. This indicates the maturity of psychosocial
development from the prior stage of crisis of adolescence. Erikson's theory has
been adapted and modified from Freud's psychosocial theory to incorporate the
entire life span, defining eight crises each with various tasks. (Kozier, et al
1995). Erikson believes that "...the greater the task achievement, the healthier
the personality of the person", (Kozier, et al, 1995, P.572.) thus suggesting
from his theory that failure to achieve these tasks, will result in the
inability to proceed to the next task or crisis. Erikson believed that failure
to achieve any given task could lead to a detrimental effect on the ego.
(Rapoport & Rapoport, 1980.)

One of the tasks of the theory of intimacy versus isolation, relates to courting
and selecting a mate for marriage. Courting usually starts prior to this
developmental stage and may continue for an undesignated period. The
continuation of courtship is entirely reliant on the individual but the
development of issues such as independence and sharing associated within a
serious relationship should be initiated. A result of this task achievement
should be that the individual has developed or learned skills that are essential
Continues for 4 more pages >>




  • The Working, Single Mother Primary Care Vs. Second
    The Working, Single Mother Primary Care Vs. Secondary Care Comparing its structure and function as it was in 1960 with what it had become in 1990 can highlight the dramatic changes in the American family. Until 1960 most Americans shared a common set of beliefs about family life; family should consist of a husband and wife living together with their children. The father should be the head of the family, earn the family\'s income, and give his name to his wife and children. The mother\'s main tas
  • Child Abuse
    Child Abuse CHILD ABUSE What is child abuse? It is the physical or emotional abuse of a child by a parent, guardian, or other person. Reports of child abuse, including sexual abuse, beating, and murder, have climbed in the United States and some authorities believe that the number of cases is largely under reported. Child neglect is sometimes included in legal definitions of child abuse to cover instances of malnutrition, desertion, and inadequate care of a child\'s safety. When reported, child
  • Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    Oppositional Defiant Disorder Children’s choices are heavily shaped by the context in which they live. All children are oppositional from time to time. The challenge is to distinguish between what is considered normal childhood behaviors and those that fall under the category of Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is categorized as a disruptive behavior disorder by the American Psychiatric Association as documented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition
  • PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING FREQUENCY OF DRUG U
    PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING FREQUENCY OF DRUG USE Running head: PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS AFFECTING FREQUENCY OF DRUG USE The Psychosocial Differences Between Drug Users of Different Frequencies Within a University Setting State University of New York at Stony Brook After declining for a decade, marijuana use began to rise among young people beginning in 1990 (National Institute of Drug Abuse NIDA}, 1996). Marijuana is one drug whose use, although illegal and considered harmful, has been "normaliz
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder affects three to five percent of all children, perhaps as many as two million American children. Two to three more boys than girls are affected. On the average, at least one child in every classroom in the United States needs help for the disorder. ADHD often continues into adolescence and adulthood, and can cause a lifetime of frustrating dreams and emotional pain (NIMH Pamphlet, 1996). According to the DSM-IV, Attent
  • Carl Jung
    Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a son of a minister in Switzerland. He was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance. He was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University of Basel. He was the oldest child and only surviving son of a Swiss Reform pastor. Two brothers died in infancy before Jung was born. Jung\'s mother was a neurotic and often fought with his father. Father was usually lonely and very irritable. When the child could not
  • Carl Jung
    Carl Jung Carl Jung   Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a son of a minister in Switzerland. He was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance. He was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University of Basel. He was the oldest child and only surviving son of a Swiss Reform pastor. Two brothers died in infancy before Jung was born. Jung\'s mother was a neurotic and often fought with his father. Father was usually lonely and very irritable. When the chi
  • Teachers are Leaders
    Teachers are Leaders Touching more lives, affecting the outcome of so many futures a teacher is the epitome of a leader. Just as a leader has his or her own style, their way of motivating their students, also plays an important part in a students success. Spending more time with our children then most parents do, a teacher is fundamental in shaping our children. If they are poor leaders our children suffer. When they shine as leaders our children blossom and the universe is wide open to them. As
  • Adolescence
    Adolescence Adolescence is the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood; it generally refers to a period ranging from age 12 or 13 through age 19 or 21. Although its beginning is often balanced with the beginning of puberty, adolescence is characterized by psychological and social stages as well as by biological changes. Adolescence can be prolonged, brief, or virtually nonexistent, depending on the type of culture in which it occurs. In societies that are simple, for example, the tra
  • Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic
    Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called "narcissistic personality disorder" is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narcissist, however,
  • Why Do Parents Abduct?
    Why Do Parents Abduct? According to the U.S. Department of Justice, over 354,000 children are kidnapped by a parent each year in divorce custody disputes. Some of the children are recovered or returned quickly while others may be on the run for years. Unfortunately many of these children are never found. Generally, people are concerned with the traumatic effects of these events on the child involved. However, both the searching parent and the abductor have many pending issues with which to deal.
  • Carl Jung
    Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a son of a minister in Switzerland. He was born on July 26, in the small village of Kesswil on Lake Constance. He was named after his grandfather, a professor of medicine at the University of Basel. He was the oldest child and only surviving son of a Swiss Reform pastor. Two brothers died in infancy before Jung was born. Jung\'s mother was a neurotic and often fought with his father. Father was usually lonely and very irritable. When the child could not
  • Biology
    Biology Biology is the science of living systems. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical sciences and mathematics, although specialities may be oriented toward a group of organisms or a level of organization. BOTANY is concerned with plant life, ZOOLOGY with animal life, algology with ALGAE, MYCOLOGY with fungi, MICROBIOLOGY with microorganisms such as protozoa and bacteria, CYTOLOGY with CELLS, and so on. All biological specialties, however, are concerned with l
  • Adolescent Depression: The Under Acknowledged Dise
    Adolescent Depression: The Under Acknowledged Disease Depression is a disease that afflicts the human psyche in such a way that the afflicted tends to act and react abnormally toward others and themselves. Therefore it comes to no surprise to discover that adolescent depression is strongly linked to teen suicide. Adolescent suicide is now responsible for more deaths in youths aged 15 to 19 than cardiovascular disease or cancer (Blackman, 1995). Despite this increased suicide rate, depression in
  • Bipolar Disorder
    Bipolar Disorder The phenomenon of bipolar affective disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that this affliction can appear in almost anyone. Even the great painter Vincent Van Gogh is believed to have had bipolar disorder. It is clear that in our society many people live with bipolar disorder; however, despite the abundance of people suffering from the it, we are still waiting for definite explanations for the causes and cure. The one fact of which we are painfull
  • Dream
    Dream DREAMS Theories attempting to explain the origin and functions of REM sleep include: (1) that REM sleep provides stimulation for the development of the brain; (2) that it performs a chemical restoration function, since during REM dreaming neuro-protein synthesis occurs along with the restoration of other depleted brain chemicals; (3) that it provides oculomotor (eye movement) coordination, since during non-REM sleep the eyes move independently of each other; (4) that it provides a vigilanc
  • Interventions In The Narcissistic Disorders
    Interventions In The Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called ‘narcissistic personality disorder’ is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narcissist, however, is often so pervasive that we tend to dehumanize hi
  • Maddness
    Maddness In order for one to fully understand the term “madness”, we first need to show what the word really means. After looking through numerous definitions and asking others on their views, the definition from the oxford dictionary seemed to sum up the general thoughts of my family and friends. “…a departure from what is normal or accepted, a moral or mental lapse.” These views might differ from person to person as morals and ideas change and societies accept different behaviors. Thus I belie
  • Narcissism
    Narcissism On Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called ‘narcissistic personality disorder’ is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narciss
  • Nature vs Nature
    Nature vs Nature Nature vs. Nurture Psychologists have often questioned whether personality traits are inherited, and therefore a result of genetics, or if they are caused by the environment, and are therefore made. This has come to be known as the nature versus nurture controversy. Many psychologists throughout history have asked this question, and most agree the answer is both. Nature versus nurture has been an on going argument for over a century and will carry on further. Scientists have bee
  • PSYCH THEORIES
    PSYCH THEORIES On Narcissism: Psychological Theories and Therapeutic Interventions in the Narcissistic Disorders Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called ‘narcissistic personality disorder’ is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the nar
  • Psycology
    Psycology Which psychologist’s theory best describes your own personality? Personality can best be described as “personal qualities of an individual”. No two people have the same personality, but yet all the different personalities in the world can be characterized into 4 main theories. The four psychologists that thought up the four theories are Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, and Abraham Maslow. (pg.64) Each man based his theory on a different part of a person’s personality developme
  • What is borderline personality disorder
    What is borderline personality disorder Borderline personality disorder is defined in the DSM IV, a manual used by psychiatrists to diagnose all mental disorders, as an AXIS II disorder which has symptoms of impulsively and emotional dysregulation (Livesley 146). A person with BPD have feelings of abandonment and emptiness, and have frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, going to extremes to keep someone from leaving (Burger 300). He or she is emotionally unstable and forms intense but unstable i
  • Who Am I?
    Who Am I? Who Am I? The amount of research that has been conducted about adoptees and their problems with identity development is enormous. Many of the researchers agree on some of the causes of identity formation problems in adolescent adoptees, while other researchers conclude that there is no significant difference in identity formation in adoptees as birth children. This paper will discuss some of the research which has been conducted and will attempt to answer the following questions: Do ad
  • Why Are Individual Aggressive?
    Why Are Individual Aggressive? WHY ARE INDIVIDUALS AGGRESSIVE? Aggression is difficult to define, it is a complex phenomenon, and depending upon the context the term can be made to carry either positive or negative connotations, it can be attacking behaviour that may be either self-protective and self-assertive or to the infliction of injury toward oneself or toward others, to the total destruction of others. Is aggression biological determined or the product of learning and environmental influe
  • Psychology
    Psychology INTRODUCTION The study of the way people think and behave is called psychology. The field of psychology has a number of sub-disciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior. Social psychology, for example, deals with human thought and action in a social context, while physiological psychology is concerned with thought and behavior at the level of neurology. Another division of psychology, comparative psychology compares the thought an
  • Nature vs. Nurture
    Nature vs. Nurture The dubious history of the heredity environment controversy can be easily traced as far back as the start of the present century with at least some historical evidence placing the roots of this dispute in the time of John Locke. This controversy has continued despite continual reiteration that the critical question is not how much of a trait is due to heredity and how much is due to environment, but rather how environment transact to influence development.” ( Wachs , 1983, p.
  • Narcissism
    Narcissism Introduction Understanding the Narcissistic Phenomenon The so called ‘narcissistic personality disorder’ is a complex and often misunderstood disorder. The cardinal feature of the narcissistic personality is the grandiose sense of self importance, but paradoxically underneath this grandiosity the narcissist suffers from a chronically fragile low self esteem. The grandiosity of the narcissist, however, is often so pervasive that we tend to dehumanize him or her. The narcissist conjures
  • A Developmental Study of Alex in Kubrick's A Clock
    A Developmental Study of Alex in Kubrick\'s A Clockwork Orange Synopsis of A Clockwork Orange In A Clockwork Orange, the main character is that of a mildly young child of 15 who, along with his fellow friends, or "Droogs", partake in evenings of Ultra-Violence. Ultra Violence consists of random beatings, theft, destruction, and rape. The main character, Alex, is the self-proclaimed leader of the pack, and makes judgment on their actions pending on his mood. His Droogs eventually find themselves
  • A developmental study of Alex in the Stanley Kubri
    A developmental study of Alex in the Stanley Kubrick producti Synopsis of A Clockwork Orange In A Clockwork Orange, the main character is that of a mildly young child of 15 who, along with his fellow friends, or "Droogs", partake in evenings of Ultra-Violence. Ultra Violence consists of random beatings, theft, destruction, and rape. The main character, Alex, is the self-proclaimed leader of the pack, and makes judgment on their actions pending on his mood. His Droogs eventually find themselves u
  • Divorce
    Divorce Divorce rates in the United States have increased dramatically in the past 25 years. Over 40 percent of the marriages among young Americans will end in divorce. There is a lot of stress on all the people involved. The man has to deal with, usually, not seeing his children, being alone, and the responsibility that is accompanied with much of the legal process. The wife has to go through, maybe, entering the work force for the first time. Children are often viewed as a back burner issue bu
  • Divorce
    Divorce DIVORCE Divorce rates in the United States have increased dramatically in the past 25 years. Over 40 percent of the marriages among young Americans will end in divorce. There is a lot of stress on all the people involved. The man has to deal with, usually, not seeing his children, being alone, and the responsibility that is accompanied with much of the legal process. The wife has to go through, maybe, entering the work force for the first time. Children are often viewed as a back burner
  • The Influence of Parents on Their Children's Sexua
    The Influence of Parents on Their Children\'s Sexual Orientation Do parents influence their children\'s sexuality? The answer may surprise you: no they do not. It has been found that about 90% of sons of gay fathers are heterosexual (Bailey 124). It was also found that 90% of daughters of lesbian women are also heterosexual (Golombok 4). According to a poll taken by Northwestern University almost 95% of people expect children of homosexual parents to be homosexual themselves (Bailey 125). This p
  • The Psychological Affects Of The Holocaust
    The Psychological Affects Of The Holocaust The Holocaust was a tragic point in history which many people believe never happened. Others who survived it thought it should never have been. Not only did this affect the people who lived through it, it also affected everyone who was connected to those fortunate individuals who survived. The survivors were lucky to have made it but there are times when their memories and flashbacks have made them wish they were the ones who died instead of living with
  • Gender and Relationship of Children
    Gender and Relationship of Children By: Your Name Here For: Professor name here Psychology 260.10 Introduction The topic of sex differences in the play preschoolers has been explored by many researchers in the past. Studies have been conducted on basic sex differences such as what toys and gender of playmates do young boys and girls prefer. The size of children\'s play networks, as well as if these networks change in the size during the preschool years have been explored. Also, differences in st
  • Psychology: Human Development
    Psychology: Human Development The field of psychology may have grown to be respected as a science. Objectivity and the scientific method are both part of the psychologist\'s mode of operation. However, even the greatest of psychologists can only theorize about what makes human beings act the way they do. Absolutes are not part of psychology . Everything is relative and open to speculation. Theorists give us their views or ideas about life. In the field of psychology, there have been many differe
  • Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Development: Youn
    Erikson\'s Psychosocial Theory of Development: Young Adults The young adult has numerous stresses placed upon them through the route of development. Erikson has theorised developmental stages of growth into tasks. Of Eriksons\' theoretical tasks, one task describes the theory of intimacy versus isolation. This task theory can be examined using the normative crisis model. The knowledge of developmental tasks of the young adult can be beneficial to the nurse especially associated with their abilit
  • David Levinson: Seasons' of A Man's Life
    David Levinson: Seasons\' of A Man\'s Life Introduction Background In May of 1977, Daniel Levinson constructed a model of the season\'s of a mans life. His developmental theory consists of universal stages or phases that extends from the infancy state to the elderly state. Most development theories, such as Freud\'s psychosexual development theory or Piaget\'s cognitive development theory, end in the adolescent stage of life. Levinson\'s stage theory is important because it goes beyond most theo
  • Gender and Relationships of Children
    Gender and Relationships of Children Gender and Relationship of Children By Your Name Here For Professor name here Psychology 260.10 Due Date _______ Introduction The topic of sex differences in the play preschoolers has been explored by many researchers in the past. Studies have been conducted on basic sex differences such as what toys and gender of playmates do young boys and girls prefer. The size of children\'s play networks, as well as if these networks change in the size during the prescho
  • Why Are Individuals Aggressive?
    Why Are Individuals Aggressive? Aggression is difficult to define, it is a complex phenomenon, and depending upon the context the term can be made to carry either positive or negative connotations, it can be attacking behaviour that may be either self-protective and self-assertive or to the infliction of injury toward oneself or toward others, to the total destruction of others. Is aggression biological determined or the product of learning and environmental influences.? This essay, will conside
  • Language
    Language Language is an abstract concept which is acquired early in life by the vast majority of children through an intricate process. There are many different theories concerning the acquisition of language that have been considered, and these are constantly being refined, along with the technology which enables researchers to further investigate the process. Bilingualism has also been a complex area of interest which has elicited various theoretical viewpoints. There are various aspects which
  • Theories Underlying the Constructivist Approach
    Theories Underlying the Constructivist Approach Introduction According to Elliot Eisner: “teaching is an art and the creations of the teacher in producing an engaging stimulating and insightful lesson are the result of using many different skills but these are influenced by qualities and contingencies that are unpredictable’ but all teachers do operate with theory where theory is ‘a general set of ideas through which we make sense of the world” And according to Peel (1967): “psychology may be de
  • Jean Plaget
    Jean Plaget RUNNING HEAD: JEAN PIAGET Jean Piaget: One of the Most Famous Theorists of Cognitive Development SED 502 7/19/04 Jean Piaget: One of the Most Famous Theorists of Cognitive Development Introduction You just had a baby and you think the things it does are so amazing, and your baby is the only one that can do that. Then you talk to other new parents, and their babies are doing almost the same things as yours; some a little more, some a little less. Now your baby is a teenager, and you a
  • Arson
    :Arson: Definition - Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc. Arson: Why do people do it and how can we prevent it? Arson is a common, costly and complex problem in this country and around the world. Arson affects everyone, invading communities, threatening businesses and family security. Deliberate fire setting is the largest single cause of fires in the
  • What are Psychopaths and How do they exist in a co
    What are Psychopaths and How do they exist in a corporate world? The media may portray the psychopath as a crazed serial killer - the stuff of nightmares and horror films - but the reality is chillingly different. Not all psychopaths are violent criminals and fewer still have a desire to eat you for dinner. Many are highly successful businessmen and women, lawyers, academics, politicians, doctors and teachers. Psychopaths wear suits too... The Mental Health Act 1983 (HMSO 1983) described psychop
  • Erik erikson
    Erik erikson Psychology March 15, 2003 ERIK ERIKSON Introduction: I. Biography A. Reasons for entering the psychology world 1. Sigmund and Anna Freud 2. His own development of identity B. Examples of life-altering changed caused by Erikson 1. Study of child psychology 2. Study of behavior II. Theories A. Steps in ones life 1. 8 stages 2. Morals vs. values are reached B. Values and virtues are gained 1. Going through each stage reaches a new height and challenge in ones life 2. Finally reach self
  • Mechanism
    Mechanism Lesson 4 Short Answer 4. Define defense mechanism. Identify two common defense mechanisms and provide your own examples of each. Defense mechanism is the mental strategies used by the ego to defend itself against conflicts experienced in the normal course of life. Fantasy and isolation are two common defense mechanisms. Daydreaming is one of the examples of fantasy – when a person is very poor, for example, he/she may imagine what he/she will eat, what he/she will dress, where he/she w
  • Computer—Its Effect on Children’s Learning and Dev
    Computer—Its Effect on Children’s Learning and Development Psychology 2 Dec 1st, 2001 The role of computers’ effect on childhood education has been a widely controversial topic for decades, and both parents and educators have concerns about the potential benefits or harms to young children. Critics argue that introducing technologies in schools will only waste time, money and childhood development itself by speeding up the pace and cutting down on essential learning experiences that children mus
  • The Self: Unitary or Multiple?
    The Self: Unitary or Multiple? The self, as a concept is one of the oldest and most persistently researched parts of social psychology. At the beginning of the twentieth century William James put down the framework for many of today’s principal issues. With expert research into the fundamentals of what goes into creating ‘the self’ James argued that it was through our “emotional identification” with them that made them part of “me” (as cited in Franzoi 1996). Many other psychologists have studie
  • Erik Erikson’s Eight Psychosocial Stages of Develo
    Erik Erikson’s Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development Psychosocial Stages 1 Running head: ERIK ERIKSON’S PYSCHOSOCIAL STAGES Erik Erikson’s Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development Psychosocial Stages 2 Abstract Erik Erikson developed the “Psychosocial Development”, which covers eight stages across the life span. These stages permanently shape personality and experiences throughout childhood to adulthood, each stage involves a “crises” in personality, a major development issue that is particul