Early Civilizations Essay

This essay has a total of 527 words and 4 pages.

Early Civilizations

Early Civilizations

From 3000 BC to 1500 BC four civilizations arose that historians to this day marvel at,
the Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Indus River Valley people, and the Shang dynasty in
China. They all had great accomplishments in government, and religion and inventions.
While they had their own different civilizations many similarities arise, such as
depending on the river and their polytheistic religions. They had very isolated
civilizations with the exception of the Sumerians. The geography, religion, and their
governments all contributed to their success as a civilization.

The Egyptians were situated in northern Africa around the Nile. The Mediterranean Sea,
Red Sea, Nubian Desert, and Libyan Desert were the natural boundaries that made the
Egyptians very isolated. Also, the Indus River valley civilization was rather isolated,
with water to the east and west, the Hindu Kush and Himalayas to the North. The monsoons
that are seasonal flood the rivers. The Shang dynasty was situated in China over the
Yellow River. On the contrary the Sumerians were not isolated at all in Mesopotamia
between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia was in the Fertile Crescent, which
was why many invaders invaded their land, ultimately crushing them.

The polytheistic religions of the early civilizations were rather similar. The Egyptians
had pharaohs, which were considered to have a god’s blood. Egyptians also had a main god
Osiris, who was god of the Nile. The Egyptians also worshiped local gods. They also
believed in the afterlife, which required mummification to accomplish. Sumerians also had
a polytheistic religion, and like the Egyptians each region or city-state worship a local
god primarily. They pictured their gods as having little regard for human life. The
Sumerians did not believe in an afterlife. The Shang dynasty’s religion is rather
different compared to the others Shang Ti was a god that ruled over lesser gods. They
also believed that ancestors were able to go between through gods and people. Also Oracle
Bones were used to tell the future. Lastly, The IRVC was also polytheistic religion they
revered bulls and some trees, and held them as sacred.

The governments of these four civilizations were rather different with kings, pharaohs,
and nobles. In Egypt a pharaoh had god’s blood and was an absolute monarch. In Sumeria
had twelve city-states that were very populated somewhere from 20,000 to 250,000 people in
each. Each city-state was governed independently and had their own kings. The king was a
military leader, and a priest, making Sumeria a theocracy. The IRVC had a centralized
government, which is indicated, by very intricately planned cities. Priest-kings were the
leaders of the land. The Shang dynasty had kings that ruled over nobles who ruled over

All four civilizations were different but significantly similarly in the sense that they
all relied on the water for transportation water for irrigation. The Nile the tigris, the
Euphrates, the Indus, and the Yellow river were the rivers that the civilizations settled
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