David Levinson: Seasons' of A Man's Life Essay

This essay has a total of 3977 words and 17 pages.

David Levinson: Seasons' of A Man's Life



In May of 1977, Daniel Levinson constructed a model of the season's of
a mans life. His developmental theory consists of universal stages or phases
that extends from the infancy state to the elderly state. Most development
theories, such as Freud's psychosexual development theory or Piaget's cognitive
development theory, end in the adolescent stage of life. Levinson's stage
theory is important because it goes beyond most theories assuming that
development continues throughout adult life.
Levinson based his model on biographical interviews of 40 American men.
These 40 men were between 35 to 45 years in age and they worked as either
biology professors, novelists, business executives or industrial laborers. The
biographical interviews lasted one or two hours and ranged from six to ten
interviews for each subject. The questions asked focused on the subject's life
accounts in their post adolescent years. The interviews focused on topics such
as the men's background (education, religion, political beliefs) and major
events or turning points in their lives.
Levinson's concept of life structure (the men's socio-cultural world,
their participation in their world and various aspects of themselves) is the
major component in Levinson's theory. The life structure for each person
evolves through the developmental stages as people's age.
Two key concepts in Levinson's model are the stable period and the
transitional period in a person's development. The stable period is the time
when a person makes crucial choices in life, builds a life structure around the
choices and seeks goals within the structure. The transitional period is the
end of a person's stage and the beginning of a new stage.
Levinson's model contains five main stages. They are the pre-adulthood
stage (age 0 - 22), the early adulthood stage (age 17 - 45), the middle adult
stage (age 40 - 65), the late adulthood stage (age 60 - 85) and the late late
adult stage (age 80 plus). Levinson states "the shift from one era to the next
is a massive development step and require transitional period of several
years."(Levinson, 1977) This would explain why there is an overlap in each of
these stages.
Levinson's first adult stage in his model is called the Early Adult
Transition Period. This phase is similar to Erikson's psychological theory in
that both concern the young adult's identity crisis or role confusion. It is
during this phase that the young adult first gains independence (financial or
otherwise) and leaves the home. This is a transitional stage because it marks
the end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood.
The second stage would be a stable period because it marks the time
where the adult must pick a role, establish goals and build a life structure.
This stage provides the young adult with any roles and choices for their future.
Levinson believes that it is during this time that the young person dreams of
his future success in a career, family life and status. Levinson also believes
that the presence of a mentor or older teacher is a great influence in guiding
the person through the obstacles in their career paths.
The third stage, which can be divided into two parts, is called the Age
30 transition. The first part of this phase deals with when the young adult
reflects on their career and past successes and also plans for future success
and status in their career as well as making plans in starting a family and
settling down. In Levinson's own words, the Age 30 transition "provides an
opportunity to work on the flaws and limitations of the first adult life
structure and to create the basis for a new and more satisfactory structure with
which to complete the era of early adulthood." (Levinson, 1977) This Age 30
transition parallels Erikson's autonomy versus shame and doubt stage which
Erikson applies to toddlers. The second part of the Age 30 transition period is
the settling down stage. It is in this stage that the person feels a need to
establish a role in society, whether in their career or their family life, which
ever is the most central part of their life structure.
The fourth phase of Levinson's model is called Becoming One's Own Man or
BOOM phase. In this stage, the man feels constrained by the authority figures
in their world. The individual wants more independence, authority and to be
true to their own voice. With this larger amount of authority, there comes a
greater amount of responsibility and burden. This is also a time of conflict as
the person struggles with the notion of becoming an established adult and
leaving behind the flaws of the early adult they once were. Levinson uses the
phrase "breaking out" to describe the adult's radical change in life structure.
The conflict in this stage is the beginning of the major transitional period in
life called the mid-life transition.
In the Mid-life transition, which Levinson believes to last from age 40
to 45, the adult faces a crucial point in their development. Much soul
searching and reflecting is done during this phase. The adults question their
past life structures and accomplishments and reevaluate their goals. There are
very few adults, according to Levinson, that find this mid-life stage difficult.
The painful process of the mid-life transition stage results in a drastically
different life structure with new goals within it. Even if an adult chooses not
to change their life structure, they must still reappraise their life and
recommit themselves on different terms to their old choices. This troubling
transitional phase does, according to Levinson, have beneficial results.
Levinson believes that "the life structure that emerges in the middle 40s varies
greatly in its satisfactoriness…"(Levinson, 1977). Levinson also states that
for some, the outcome of this transition provides the person with fulfillment
and a b etter direction.
Levinson's model emphasizes that development of life structures is a
continuous life process. In the stages which follow the mid-life transition are
not focused on, but Levinson does state that the mid-life transition is not the
last opportunity for growth and change. He believes there are later
transitional periods in late adulthood as well. He states that "as long as life
continues, no period marks the end of the opportunities, and the burdens of
further development." (McAdams and Levinson, 1977)


Levinson's model is called the season's of a mans life. This wording
alone predicts the gender bias found in his theory. His theory was based on
biographical material solely from men. This blatant bias would certainly affect
the model's applicability towards women.


" It is surprising that Levinson's model, established in 1978, would contain
such an outright bias considering the time period. Some obvious faults in his
theory as it relates to women are the differences in men's and women's career
and family goals. the men who were interviewed for Levinson's study would have
been raised in the 1950s and 60s. Women and men who grew up during this time
were gender typed to a much greater extent than the males and females are today.
These big differences would indicate different education, goals, values and
statuses. It is very unlikely that Levinson's theory would apply to a woman's
development considering the different roles, goals and life structures between
these men and women. Perhaps, with a amore equal treatment of men and women
today, Levinson's model of the season', of the life of man would be more
applicable to both sexes.

However, even with the majority of women who join the work force today,
the lives of these women still differ drastically with the men of the labor
force and a universal model of development for men and women would still await
further research as Levinson stated.
This is not to say that women do not enter a development stage pattern
that Levinson proposes because research has shown that women do enter these
phases, however, at different times than men and also the effects of these
transitions affect women differently than men. It would be unlikely for a
woman's life to develop parallel to a man's life because the choices, obstacles
and goals men and women face , differ drastically from one another. For example,
when entering the adult world, many women ( during the 50s and 60s ) were not
faced with the many different opportunities and roles which faced men. For many
women, even those who were educated and worked, family was the major
responsibility and their main role was the mother. Even in today's society,
with equal opportunity and career mothers, a woman's career is interrupted with
pregnancy and the first months of motherhood (many choose to take years off from
work to raise their children (Orstein and Isabella, 1990) ). The fact remains,
women have established themselves in the work force as equals to men and are
able to have both families and careers, women's lives are different than men's.
These differences mean that the phases of life development, according to
Levinson's model, will differ with men and women. The age 30 transition, for
example, may occur for women at a somewhat later age than for men because
women's are described taking a slow burn to the top. ( This is not to say
women's careers are less successful, but rather take a longer time to reach
success. This is probably due to the interruption of pregnancy and motherhood.
(Orstein and Isabella, 1990) ) The differences between the lives and
development patterns between men and women and how this affects Levinson's model
will be examined further, but first here's a look at some recent research
regarding women's current goals, changes and life structures.
The Divorce rate in North America has never been higher. One would
think that the effects of divorce would be most devastating to a woman whose
main goals relate to her family and marriage. A recent study by Krisanne Bursik
(1991) researches the ego development for women after marital separation or
divorce. Bursik found that "divorce demands personal reorganization and
adjustment to new roles and life-styles." (Bursik, 1991) She also found that
women who find divorce to be more disequilibrating, experienced the most change
in ego development. Barsik's study involved a longitudinal research of 104
women who lived in the greater Boston area. The women reported their feelings
of disequilibrium after their divorce or separation. A year later, their ego
development scores were compared with their scores from the previous year.
Contrary to what one may think about the effects of divorce on women, this study
shows that for many women a painful time in life can produce strong, positive
changes in t heir personal growth (Bursik, 1991) I feel that for many women, a
divorce or marital separation is in some way equivalent to Levinson's mid-life
transition which he applied to men.
Another study, by Paul Wink and Ravenna Helson (1993), focuses on the
personality change in women after pregnancy and motherhood, compared to the
change in their husbands. The women in this study were all educated and
graduating from college in the late 50s. It is a linear study including ages 21,
27, 43 and 52.
The husbands of these women were also evaluated at the same time
intervals. the first period studied was early parental time. All of the women
had a t least one child and only a few continued in pursuing a professional
career. The second period studied was post parental and in this stage, more
than 70% of the women were now in the labor force. The results showed that at
the time of early parental stage, the women were less goal oriented, more
facilitative in their interpersonal relationships and in more need of emotional
support from others. The men were all full time employed in this stage.
The next stage, the post parental time, almost all of the women were
Continues for 9 more pages >>

  • Meditation- An in-depth look at the 5,000 year old
    Meditation- An in-depth look at the 5,000 year old remedy for The Lance In-Depth Feature- Meditation by Courtney Martin In this modern day and age, the negative effects of stress are unavoidable. People have tried various methods to help cope with stress, everything from exercise and diet to alternative methods like biofeedback. However, the most effective method to deal with stress is not one of these modern methods but rather a 5,000 year-old idea: Meditation. Meditation not only helps reduce
  • Native Canadians in Literature
    Native Canadians in Literature Introduction: Literature offers a strong and passionate voice for the past. The literature of the Native Canadian is a voice we, the people of Canada, can no longer ignore. There is little to be gained by dwelling on the past. Nevertheless, there is much to be realized by accepting what has passed, with all of its mistakes and dust we might otherwise wish to hide under the carpets. English literature, since at least the sixteenth century, has a firm grounding in Ca
  • 'Rebbecca' Essay
    \'Rebbecca\' Essay Texts show us how experience often changes people. ‘Rebecca’, a novel written by Daphne Du Maurier illustrates this point. Throughout the engrossing story, the characters experience much and as a result, the characters undergo both temporary and life-altering changes to their thoughts, beliefs and behaviour. In the beginning of the novel, the narrator is the insecure, shy and inexperienced paid companion of Mrs. Van Hopper. However, when she marries Maxim De Winter her life to
    SHOULD CANADA BE ALLOWED TO CONTINUE WITH GENETIC ENGINEERIN SHOULD CANADA BE ALLOWED TO CONTINUE WITH GENETIC ENGINEERING WITHOUT FEDERAL GUIDELINES? pg.1 Should Canada be allowed to continue with genetic engineering without federal guidelines? In the past ten years there has been a rise in a relatively new science, a science that raises alot of controversial questions with very few answers. This science is called Genetic Engineering. In it¹s simplest terms it is the reordering of a genetic DNA
  • Standard-english
    standard-english There are several important events before 1500 that when listed together show a series of steps in the struggle for English language supremacy. These steps are mainly governmental, legal and official events that pushed English usage. In 1356 The Sheriff\'s Court in London and Middlesex were conducted in English for the first time. When Parliament opened in 1362 the Statute of Pleading was issued declaring English as a language of the courts as well as of Parliament, but it was n
  • The archaeological importance of the study of pott
    The archaeological importance of the study of pottery The discipline of archaeology is by no means a simple nor singular study of the past. Due to the wide range of evidence within the archaeological record, from organic to inorganic, many different methods and approaches are taken in order to deal with the wide spectrum of differing evidence. Nevertheless, the study of pottery is without doubt one of the most important tasks taken on by any archaeologist. A great wealth of information can be ga
  • The Trials And Tribulations On Charles Dickens
    The Trials And Tribulations On Charles Dickens It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way--in short, the period was so. (Bibli
  • Trials And Tribulations Of Charles Dickens ( His L
    Trials And Tribulations Of Charles Dickens ( His Life Works) It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way--in short, the period
  • What is Public Relations Select 2 definitions and
    What is Public Relations Select 2 definitions and assess The Mexican Statement, agreed on by the World Assembly of Public Relations Associations in Mexico City in August 1978 (Seitel, 1992, 8), reads, "Public relations practice is the art and social science of analysing trends, predicting their consequences, counselling organisation leaders, and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organisation\'s and the public interest." Strengths 1. The emphasis that public rela
  • Alien Existance
    Alien Existance Term Paper Alien Existence? screen name: thedigitalmatrix email: godsson@godsson5.com Do Aliens Exist? Just about 500 years ago people believed that the earth was still flat, 50 years ago people doubted the existence of an alien life, 5 min ago the people of earth believe that aliens existed. Many individuals around the world have reportedly been contacted by extra terrestrial beings. They allege that Earth is currently being visited by several different species of extra terrestr
  • Unemployment
    Unemployment In industrialized countries in which most people can earn a living only by working for others, being unable to find a job is a serious problem. Because of its human costs in deprivation and a feeling of rejection and personal failure, the extent of unemployment is widely used as a measure of workers\' welfare. The proportion of workers unemployed also shows how well a nation\'s human resources are used and serves as an index of economic activity. Economists have described the types
  • Kao Corporation
    Kao Corporation Executive Summary In this project, I have chosen the Fast Moving Consumer Product industry as the topic of study. First of all we will take a brief look at how the industry started in the late 19th century as soap making companies and slowly evolving into some of the most successful multidomestic company of today. Following we will have insight on the industry’s prominent characteristics and highlight some of the major players. We will also get an idea of the attractiveness of th
  • Classical Economists
    Classical Economists As a coherent economic theory, classical economics start with Smith, continues with the British Economists Thomas Robert Malthus and David Ricardo. Although differences of opinion were numerous among the classical economists in the time span between Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776) and Ricardo’s Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817), they all mainly agreed on major principles. All believed in private property, free markets, and, in Smith’s words, “ The individu
  • Cloning
    cloning The successful cloning of an adult sheep, announced in Scotland this past February, is one of the most dramatic recent examples of a scientific discovery becoming a public issue. During the last few months, various commentators -- scientists and theologians, physicians and legal experts, talk-radio hosts and editorial writers -- have been busily responding to the news, some calming fears, other raising alarms about the prospect of cloning a human being. At the request of the President, t
  • Types of unemployment
    types of unemployment UNEMPLOYMENT In industrialized countries in which most people can earn a living only by working for others, being unable to find a job is a serious problem. Because of its human costs in deprivation and a feeling of rejection and personal failure, the extent of unemployment is widely used as a measure of workers\' welfare. The proportion of workers unemployed also shows how well a nation\'s human resources are used and serves as an index of economic activity. Economists hav
  • Counter Measures
    Counter Measures National Missile Defense (NMD) is once again a growing concern in America. There have been many new developments since the post-Cold War elimination of nuclear warfare. This diminishing of arms however, is a very fine line. The United States cannot afford to have less capability then the rest of the world, but it does want to encourage unilateral non-proliferation of nuclear arms. In addition, there is a new awareness of “rogue” nations that are completely unpredictable. Since t
  • Discrimintation of AIDS patients
    Discrimintation of AIDS patients AIDS, or the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome has been one of the most threatening diseases of the 20th century. Ever since it has been discovered in 1981, it has been constantly infecting men, women, adults, newly born children, homosexuals and heterosexuals. In definition AIDS is an extremely serious disorder that results from severe damage to the body’s defense against disease. Even though AIDS was born in an era of sophisticated medical and surgical develo
  • The Withch-hunt In Modern Europe
    The Withch-hunt In Modern Europe THE WITCH-HUNT IN MODERN EUROPE By: Brian Levack The Witch-Hunt in Modern Europe by Brian Levack proved to be an interesting as well as insightful look at the intriguing world of the European practice of witchcraft and witch-hunts. The book offers a solid, reasonable interpretation of the accusation, prosecution, and execution for witchcraft in Europe between 1450 and 1750. Levack focuses mainly on the circumstances from which the witch-hunts emerged, as this rep
  • Family Planning Population Policy In India
    Family Planning Population Policy In India India\'s population is in peril. Without the implementation of stringent, effective population management policies, the country\'s population will rise above 2 billion within the next 20 years (www.fpaindia.com). In the absence of control programs, India\'s ever growing population will lead to increased incidents of famine, disease, environmental stress and result in a severe shortage of housing facilities. However, if the Indian government quickly admi
  • Genetic Engineering: Technological Advancements An
    Genetic Engineering: Technological Advancements And The Potential For Disaster Current technology has made what once seemed impossible, mapping the human genome, a reality within the next decade. What began over forty years ago with the discovery of the basic structure of DNA has evolved into the Human Genome Project. This is a fifteen-year, three billion dollar effort to sequence the entire human genetic code. The Project, under the direction of the U.S. National Institute of Health and the dep
  • Homeless People
    Homeless People The problem of homelessness in America is growing dramatically. It\'s a problem that can strike anyone when you least expect it. Therefore you should address this as a major crisis that affects our society. I feel as Americans we should come together to create solutions to end a growing epidemic of homeless people. Statistics show people living in poverty are most at risk of becoming homeless. Economically they are at a higher risk of losing what little they already have. The num
  • Marx
    marx As stated before, the key classes in the capitalist mode of production are the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, or capitalists and landless wage laborers. While Marx recognizes that there are other classes, the fundamental class division is between this pairing of the exploiter and the exploited. The bourgeoisie derive their class position from the fact that they own productive wealth. It is not their high income that makes them capitalists, but the fact that they own the means of productio
  • Math
    Math How the Renaissance had an effect on western Europe By: Patrick Bryant E-mail: Pbryant98@hotmail.com The Renaissance was significant on the development of Western Europe and the Impact it had was immense. The Renaissance not only influenced the worlds of art, music, and literature, but also the worlds of politics, religion, and society. During the Renaissance, advancements were made in several areas of technology and in thought. The Renaissance was a key in the development of Western Civili
  • Artificial Intelligence
    Artificial Intelligence ABSTRACT Current neural network technology is the most progressive of the artificial intelligence systems today. Applications of neural networks have made the transition from laboratory curiosities to large, successful commercial applications. To enhance the security of automated financial transactions, current technologies in both speech recognition and handwriting recognition are likely ready for mass integration into financial institutions. RESEARCH PROJECT TABLE OF CO
  • Quality Issues In System Development
    Quality Issues In System Development The period between the 1970\'s and 1980\'s was a time of great advancement in computer hardware technology which took an industry still in it\'s infancy, to a level of much sophistication and which ultimately revelutionised the information storage and processing needs of every other industry and that of the entire world. However, it was also during this period when the shortcomings of implementing such technology became apparent. A significant number of devel
  • Robotics
    Robotics The image usually thought of by the word robot is that of a mechanical being, somewhat human in shape. Common in science fiction, robots are generally depicted as working in the service of people, but often escaping the control of the people and doing them harm. The word robot comes from the Czech writer Karel Capek\'s 1921 play “ R.U.R.” (which stands for "Rossum\'s Universal Robots"), in which mechanical beings made to be slaves for humanity rebel and kill their creators. From this, t
  • Technology In Our Society
    Technology In Our Society No doubt, technology is increasingly important in the modern world. It is amazing how fast technology has been developed. Nearly every major advance was invented in the last century. These invention are always planned for a positive result, however the negative effects often do not become apparent until after the event. These effects will be deal in the following paragraphs with related materials. The text, "Whose Life is it Anyway?", by Brian Clark, has clearly illustr
  • Breach of Confidentiality: The Legal Implications
    Breach of Confidentiality: The Legal Implications When You Are Seeking Therapy Abnormal Psychology 204 November 2, 1996 Breach of Confidentiality: The legal Implications when You are seeking Therapy I. The need for confidentiality in therapy A. Establish trust B. A patients bill of rights Thesis: The duty to warn has created an ethical dilemma for psychological professionals. II. Therapists face a moral problem B. Requirement by law to breach confidentiality C. Exceptions for breaching confident
  • Becoming an Ecologist is an Exciting Venture
    Becoming an Ecologist is an Exciting Venture Because of the increasing changes in the environment, a career as an ecologist is an important venture, especially for an earth-science oriented person with a love for nature and animals. With the number of ecological disasters escalating every year there is an ever increasing need for ecologists and people trained in ecology. Along with these disasters there are hundreds of animals and plants that are disappearing off the planet everyday. There is al
  • Development of the Human Zygote
    Development of the Human Zygote November 16, 1995 Hundreds of thousands of times a year a single-celled zygote, smaller than a grain of sand, transforms into an amazingly complex network of cells, a newborn infant. Through cellular differentiation and growth, this process is completed with precision time and time again, but very rarely a mistake in the "blueprint" of growth and development does occur. Following is a description of how the pathways of this intricate web are followed and the mista
  • Albert Einstein and His Theories
    Albert Einstein and His Theories Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), German-born American physicist and Nobel laureate, best known as the creator of the special and general theories of relativity and for his bold hypothesis concerning the particle nature of light. He is perhaps the most well-known scientist of the 20th century. Einstein was born in Ulm on March 14, 1879, and spent his youth in Munich, where his family owned a small shop that manufactured electric machinery. He did not talk until the a
  • Nikola Tesla
    Nikola Tesla Few people recognize his name today, and even among those who do, the words Nikola Tesla are likly to summon up the image of a crackpot rather than an authentic scientist. Nikola Tesla was possibly the greatest inventor the world has ever known. He was, without doubt, a genius who is not only credited with many devices we use today, but is also credited with astonishing, sometimes world-transforming, devices that are even simply amazing by todays scientific standards. Tesla was born
  • New Developments or Research in Genetic Cloning: S
    New Developments or Research in Genetic Cloning: Summary Since genetic cloning is a very wide topic, the focus of my paper lies mainly on the new discoveries which might be beneficial to human beings. The focus of the first section of the paper is on the various cloning techniques geneticists use nowadays. They techniques included range from the simplest and suitable for all situations, to complicated and suitable for certain areas. The second section of the paper, the longest section, discusses
  • The Genetics of Violence
    The Genetics of Violence Introduction We, in the 1990’s, are slowly and inevitably being faced with the sociological and biological implications of impending genetic power. This power is analytical, in such cases as the Human Genome Project, which will hopefully succeed in mapping out the genetic code for the entire human genetic composition. Moreover, this power is preventative and participatory in that it can be, and is being, used to control the behavior of humans and other animals. This new
  • William Gibson and The Internet
    William Gibson and The Internet Introduction The words "Internet" and "world wide web" are becoming everyday use these days, it has exploded into the mass market of information and advertising. There are bad points about the "net" as well as good points, this relatively new medium is growing at such a rate that the media have to take it seriously. This new form of communication was mainly populated by small groups of communities, but now that it is getting much easier to access the web these gro
  • Chemical and Biological Weapons
    Chemical and Biological Weapons Chemical and biological weapons are the most dangerous threats that our soldiers face today. But just how much do most of us know about them? The American public had been bombarded by stories of how our government keeps secret weapons, does secret experiments, and the everlasting conspiracies. And many accept it all. Rather than simply trusting our government, (which is perhaps as foolish as believing several unsubstansiated theroies), I’ve compiled several simple
  • The Chlorine Debate: How White Do You Want It?
    The Chlorine Debate: How White Do You Want It? Chlorine is one of the world\'s most widely used chemicals, the building element vital to almost every United States industry. We use chlorine and chlorine-based products whenever we drink a glass of water, buy food wrapped in plastic, purchase produce in the supermarket, pour bleach into a washing machine, have a prescription filled, print out a computer document like this one, or even drive a car. (Abelson 94) Chlorine, a member of the halogen (sa
  • Colorado River
    Colorado River Geographers can tell you that the one thing that most rivers and their adjacent flood plains in the world have in common is that they have rich histories associated with human settlement and development. This especially true in arid regions which are very dependent upon water. Two excellent examples are the Nile and the Tigris-Euphrates rivers which show use the relationship between rivers and concentrations of people. However, the Colorado River is not such a good example along m
  • Dams
    Dams Many people have already dammed a small stream using sticks and mud by the time they become adults. Humans have used dams since early civilization, because four-thousand years ago they became aware that floods and droughts affected their well-being and so they began to build dams to protect themselves from these effects.1 The basic principles of dams still apply today as they did before; a dam must prevent water from being passed. Since then, people have been continuing to build and perfect
  • Gene Manipulation
    Gene Manipulation Throughout time, man has always questioned science. Man has been curious about life, space, our bodies, and our existence. Man has gone as far as to the moon, and cloning. Everyday there are new developments being researched. Along with these developments come the people’s opinion. Many people question the positive outcomes and negative outcomes of procedures such as gene manipulation, cloning, in vitro fertilization and fetal tissue implants. To this day, scientists are resear
  • Ice Caps Melting
    Ice Caps Melting The Ice Caps Melting Are global warming and the greenhouse effect causing the ice to melt and the sea levels to rise? Antarctica and Greenland hold a good population of the world’s ice in the ocean. The article, “Answers to sea level rise locked in ice” by Jack Williams of USA Today, describes what is happening with the polar ice caps, and how it is going to effect the world. Williams compares the amount of ice in Antarctica to the size of “USA’s 48 contiguous states and half of
    INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Oliver Lines BABS 2 – Option Managing Information Systems In Organisations RECENT ADVANCES IN SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT WILL RADICALLY CHANGE THE INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an abundance of new technologies in the information systems field. These new technologies have altered the very development process itself. Information systems have gone from being a series of one level databases to three dimensional r
  • Confusion
    confusion In the view of the Chinese common man, life on earth is but a temporary stop on his journey to death and other reincarnations. Since death is viewed as inexorable and inherent in the human condition, the Chinese accepts it with composure. It was a common custom in China, especially in rural areas, for people to have a coffin ready in their houses as a preparation for death that may come ten or twenty years in the future. Well-to-do people used to build their own tombs long before they
  • Religious Beliefs
    Religious Beliefs Today\'s religious beliefs, governmental structures, laws and traditions of social behavior find their roots in the development of three main belief systems - Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Although other religious movements have developed throughout the years, these three belief systems have had the most impact on civilizations of the West. To better understand this impact, it is important to trace the development of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and review the relations
  • Biological Determinism
    Biological Determinism 1. According to the author of the article "All in the Genes?", there is no intrinsic causality between genetics and intelligence. The author analyses different aspects of biological determinism, and supplies many examples, which illustrate aspects of this problem that are being discussed since the time when these ideas became popular. He does not agree with biological determinist that the intellectual performance of a person depends on genes inherited from his parents. The
  • Consciousness, the Self, and Personality Theory: A
    Consciousness, the Self, and Personality Theory: A Critical Survey of Theories of Philosophical Arguments and Modern Psychological Personality Theories. This paper will concern itself with some main philosophical arguments and dilemmas and how they correlate with modern psychological personality theories. This survey will include dilemmas about the mind and body, the concept of the self, and inner and outer reality. Also, it will discuss six personality theorists and their scientific and philoso
  • The Applications Of Technology In The First Decade
    The Applications Of Technology In The First Decade Of The Twenty-First Century The Applications of Technology in the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century A quote I heard many times when I was in high school and which I now know traces back to Sir Francis Bacon, one of our earliest scientist or philosophers as they were then called, is the statement Knowledge Is Power. Today, I believe that the fuller, more correct statement is to say, the application of knowledge is power. The study of scien
  • Sport Psychology
    Sport Psychology To fully understand sport psychology, we must ask ourselves two very important questions, first, what is sport psychology and second, who is it for? Put in the most sim-ple way, sport psychology can be an example of psychological knowledge, principles, or methods applied to the world of sport. "Two psychologists, Bunker and Maguire, say sport psychology is not for psychologists, but is for sport and its participants." (Murphy & White, 1978:2) However, it can be argued that sport
  • T.S. ELIOT
    T.S. ELIOT Throughout Thomas Stearns Eliot\'s poems run Christian themes and values that evoke a critical view of society. Though he published relatively little compared to other poets of his caliber, he has been recognized as both a poet and a critic. He himself has been criticized for unnecessary obscurity and for authorian severity (Bradley, 1163). Throughout his poems and other works, he professes a distinct critique upon society due mainly because of his belief that Christianity should play
  • David Suzuki's A Planet for the Taking
    David Suzuki\'s A Planet for the Taking In the essay "A Planet for the Taking," David Suzuki describes Canadians\' odd appreciation for this great natural bounty we call our own. He is an internationally acclaimed scientist who is concerned about the welfare of Canada. Suzuki\'s intended audience is the Canadian population that does not realize the grave danger they are instilling upon themselves by haphazardly taking our resources without looking at the subsequent repercussions of their actions