This essay BASL 2016 Conference has a total of 20118 words and 92 pages.
BASL 2016 Conference
The practice of doping in sport is possibly as old as organised sport itself. Even in Ancient Greece, athletes used special diets and stimulants to build strength. However it was not until the 1920s that it became clear that restrictions were needed on drug use in sport.
in 1966, the cycling and football federations (UCI and FIFA) introduced drug tests during their World Championships, pre-empting the first Olympic testing at the Grenoble Winter Games and the Olympics in Mexico, in 1968.
Athletes' use of illicit substances continued to hit the headlines throughout the 1970s and 1980s, with rumours of state-sponsored doping in countries such as the former German Democratic Republic. With the disqualification of 100-metre champion Ben Johnson at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, two things became clear: that top athletes were under immense pressure to succeed, and that methods of enhancing performance were becoming ever more sophisticated.
In 1998 a large number of prohibited medical substances were found by the police in a raid during the Tour de France. The scandal led to a major reappraisal of the role of public authorities in anti-doping affairs, and highlighted the need for an independent international agency which would set unified standards for anti-doping work and coordinate the efforts of sports organisations and public authorities.
The IOC seized the initiative and convened the first World Conference on Doping in Sport in Lausanne in February 1999. Following the proposal of the Conference, the HYPERLINK "http://www.wada-ama.org/" \o "opens new window " \t "_blank" World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) was established on 10 November 1999.
UKAD coordinates the UK's testing programme across more than 40 sports and is responsible for the collection and transportation of samples to a World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) [headquarters in Monteal, Canada] accredited laboratory. UKAD is also responsible for reporting test results to the appropriate National Governing Body (NGB) or International Federation (IF).
in-competition is defined by WADA as "the period commencing 12 hours before competition… through to the end of such competition and the sample-collection process related to such competition"
Any UK and non-UK athlete staying, training, residing, entering a competition, or named as a member of a team participating in a competition, at any level within the UK, is eligible for testing as part of UKAD's national anti-doping programme.
The selection of athletes for testing is determined by UKAD in conjunction with the relevant NGB or IF. Selection is based on the following criteria:
Placing in the event (e.g. 1st, 2nd or 10th) or lane draw
Discipline, category or round
A set number of players from each team (usually using random selection)
Pre-selected (target) testing
Qualifying for national representation.
Most sports will not recognise a world or national record until an athlete has been tested and a negative result has been returned.
Athletes subject to the anti-doping rules of their sport are eligible for testing at any time. Athletes may also be selected for the Registered Testing Pool (NRTP/IRTP) .
Athletes nominated for inclusion in the NRTP will be notified by UKAD and will be required to supply details of their whereabouts on ADAMS. This is called Whereabouts Filing.
UK Anti-Doping was created in December 2009, following the recommendation by UK Sport to Government that a new, independent national anti-doping organisation should be established to lead the fight against doping in the build-up to the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. UKAD took over responsibility for testing and education from the ‘Drug Free Sport' Directorate at UK Sport, together with case management responsibilities previously carried out by National Governing Bodies of Sports.
UKAD is responsible for the implementation and management of the UK's anti-doping policy and ensuring that sports bodies in the UK comply with the Code. It delivers robust testing programmes across more than 40 Olympic, Paralympic and professional sports, undertakes scientific research to identify and detect new methods of enhancing performance.
Informing and educating athletes about their role and responsibilities towards anti-doping is a major part of UKAD's remit, and educational programmes aim to inform athletes performing at every level. In 2010, UKAD launched Report Doping in Sport , a 24-hour confidential phone line and online information form to support the fight against doping in sport.
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