ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH

This essay ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH has a total of 2236 words and 151 pages.


ABBREVIATION IN ENGLISH


An abbreviation is a shorter way to write a word or phrase. People use abbreviations


for words that they write a lot. The English language often uses the apostrophe mark \'


to show that a word is written in a shorter way, but some abbreviations do not use this mark.


Some abbreviations use the period mark, especially the ones that come from the Latin language.


Some examples of common English abbreviations are "don\'t" for "do not", "shouldn\'t" for "should not", "etc." for " et cetera ".


Some new abbreviations have been created by scientists, by workers in companies and governments, and by people using the Internet.


Here are a few examples: The word "radar" is an abbreviation for "Radio Detection and Ranging".


The name of the large computer company IBM comes from the words "International Business Machines".


The name of the part of the United States government that sends rockets into outer space is


NASA, from the words "National Aeronautics and Space Administration".


When people using the Internet think that something is very funny, they sometimes write "LOL" to mean


"Laughing Out Loud". People sometimes write "ASAP" for "As Soon As Possible".


Common Latin Abbreviations
Abbreviation Latin English usage


ca. circa approximately


cf. confer compare


e.g. exempli gratia for example


et al. et alii and the others


etc. et cetera and so on


ibid. ibidem in the same place as the previous reference


i.e. id est that is


N.B. Nota Bene note well


P.S. post scriptum an addition to the main text


viz. videlicet namely


A.M. ante meridiem before noon


BBC British Broadcasting Corporation


ICI Imperial Chem ical Industries


FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation


RSPCA Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals


NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization


MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology


TUC Trades Union Congress


USA United States of America


NMR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance


ELT - English Language Teaching


ESL - English as a Second Language


EFL - English as a Foreign Language


AAAL - American Assocation for Applied Linguistics


ACTFL - American Council on the teaching of Foreign Languages


AE - American English


BAAL - British Assocation of Applied Linguistics


BC - British Council


GMAT - Graduate Management Admission Test. The GMAT measures general verbal, mathematical, and analytical writing skills.


GPA - Grade Point Average


GRE - Graduate Record Examination - an evaluation test for graduate admission to colleges and universities in the U.S.


SAE - Standard American English


SAT - Scholastic Assessment (Aptitude) Test - pre-university entrance exam in the USA


TEFL - Teaching English as a Foreign Language


TEFLA - Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults


TEIL - Teaching English as an International Language


TESL - Teaching English as a Second Language


TESOL - Teaching English to Speakers of Other Langauges


TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language - the most common English proficiency exam for


North American universities and colleges, also accepted by some British universities and employers as proof of English proficiency.





The Oxford English Dictionary: List of Abbreviations


A



a. (in Etym.)


adoption of, adopted from


a (as a 1850)


ante, \'before\', \'not later than\'


a.


adjective


abbrev.


abbreviation (of)


abl.


ablative


absol.


absolute, -ly


Abstr.


(in title s) Abstract, -s


acc.


accusative


Acct.


(in titles) Account


A.D.


Anno Domini


ad. (in Etym.)


adaptation of


Add.


Addenda


adj.


adjective


Adv.


(in titles) Advance, -d, -s


adv.


adverb


advb.


adverbial, -ly


Advt.


advertisement


Aeronaut.


(as label) in Aeronautics; (in titles) Aeronautic, -al, -s


AF., AFr.


Anglo-French


Afr.


Africa, -n


Agric.


(as label) in Agriculture; (in titles) Agriculture, - al


Alb.


Albanian


Amer.


American


Amer. Ind.


American Indian


Anat.


(as label) in Anatomy; (in titles) Anatomy, - ical


Anc.


(in titles) Ancient


Anglo-Ind.


Anglo-Indian


Anglo-Ir.


Anglo-Irish


Ann.


Annals


Anthrop., Anthropol.


(as label) in Anthropology; (in titles) Anthropology, -ical


Antiq.


(as label) in Antiquities; (in titles) Antiquity


aphet.


aphetic, aphetized


app.


apparently


Appl.


(in titles) Applied


Applic.


(in titles) Application, -s


appos.


appositive, -ly


Arab.


Arabic


Aram.


Aramaic


Arch.


(as label) in Architecture; (in titles) Architecture, -al


Arm.


Armenian


assoc.


association


Astr.


in Astronomy


Astrol.


in Astrology


Astron.


(in titles) Astronomy, -ical


Astronaut.


(in titles) Astronautic, -s


attrib.


attributive, -ly


Austral.


Australian


Autobiogr.


(in titles) Autobiography, -ical


A.V.


Authorized Version


B


B.C.


Before Christ


B.C.


(in titles) British Columbia


bef.


before


Bibliogr.


(as label) in Bibliography; (in titles) Bibliography, -ical


Biochem.


(as label) in Biochemistry; (in titles) Biochemistry, -ical


Biol.


(as label) in Biology; (in titles) Biology, - ical


Bk.


Book


Bot. (as label) in Botany; (in titles) Botany, -ical Bp.


Bishop


Brit.


(in titles) Britain, British


Bulg.


Bulgarian


Bull.


(in titles) Bulletin


C


c (as c 1700)


circa, \'about\'


c. (as 19th c.)


century


Cal.


(in titles) Calendar


Cambr.


(in titles) Cambridge


Canad.


Canadian


Cat.


Catalan


catachr.


catachrestically


Catal.


(in titles) Catalogue


Celt.


Celtic


Cent.


(in titles) Century, Central


Cent. Dict.


Century Dictionary


Cf., cf.


confer, \'compare\'


Ch.


Church


Chem.


(as label) in Chemistry; (in titles) Chemistry, - ical


Chr.


(in titles) Christian


Chron.


(in titles) Chronicle


Chronol.


(in titles) Chronology, -ical


Cinemat., Cinematogr.


in Cinematography


Clin.


(in titles) Clinical


cl. L.


classical Latin


cogn. w.


cognate with


Col.


(in titles) Colonel, Colony


Coll.


(in titles) Collection


collect.


collective, -ly


colloq.


colloquial, -ly


comb.


combined, -ing


Comb.


Combinations


Comm.


in Commercial usage


Communic.


in Communications


comp.


compound, composition


Compan.


(in titles) Companion


compar.


comparative


compl.


complement


Compl.


(in titles) Complete


Conc.


(in titles) Concise


Conch.


in Conchology


concr.


concrete, -ly


Conf.


(in titles) Conference


Congr.


(in titles) Congress


conj.


conjunction


cons.


consonant


const.


construction, construed with


contr.


contrast (with)


Contrib.


(in titles) Contribution


Corr.


(in titles) Correspondence


corresp.


corresponding (to)


Cotgr.


R. Cotgrave, Dictionarie of the French and English

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